Tuesday October 24, 2017

Concentration combines with entertainment to become Avadhaanam: Shataavadhaani R Ganesh (Part 1)


By Nithin Sridhar

Literature can be considered as a lifeline of any language. Among various genres of literature, poetry can be said to be one of the purest forms of expression.

From the very ancient times, the Indian poets have found a unique way to not only create poetry spontaneously and on the spot, but to do so in a creative and artful manner that would entertain the audience. This ancient literary performance, which is still very much alive and flourishing, is known as ‘Avadhaanam’.

In an exclusive interview with NewsGram, Shataavadhaani Dr. R. Ganesh, who has performed more than 1000 Avadhaanams speaks about this art, its history, the pre-requisites for performing Avadhaanam, and present conditions.

Interview of Shataavadhaani Dr. R. Ganesh: Part 1

Nithin Sridhar: Avadhaanam is considered as one of the most creative, but extremely difficult literary performances. What is the role of it in literature and how important is it in preserving and enriching a language?

Shataavadhaani Ganesh: It basically means ‘concentration’. ‘Ava’ is the prefix of the word ‘Dhanam’. Ava means ‘well’, Dhanam meaning ‘placing’ or focusing. Therefore, Avadhaanam means well focusing or well-concentrated.

Avadhaanam or concentration is a faculty of mind. And for it to become an art, it must have an entertaining value. Concentration as such is not very appealing and attracting. Hence, various arts like literature, music, and dance are combined with concentration and various kinds of Avadhaanam performances like Sahitya Avadhaanam, Sangita Avadhaanam, etc. are executed.

What I perform is Sahitya Avadhaanam using poetry and literature, but I have also designed Nritya Avadhaanam which uses dance.

An Avadhaanam performance basically includes concentration and spontaneous creation (of poetry, etc.) amidst disturbances. A real Avadhaanam should have an in-built art and the artistic creation should be spontaneous and extempore to any challenges given on the spot. At the same time, the whole process is carried out without hindrances amidst various disturbances. The aspect of disturbance is very important as without it, there is no point in saying, the Avadhaani or the performer of Avadhaanam is focusing or concentrating. The real concentration is only when the performer is focused despite of being constrained with a lot of distractions and willful diversions.

Therefore, spontaneous creation of art (Ashu Kala Sarjana) amidst distractions (Vikshepa), with full concentration (Avadhaanam) is Kala-Avadhaanam (Art of Concentration) and when this is done using literature, it becomes Sahitya-Kala-Avadhaanam.

Sahitya Avadhaanam which includes spontaneous creation of grammatically correct and aesthetically appealing poetry and prose on the spot will naturally be cherished by people and will enrich the literature as well as the language in which the performance is given.

Further, it mainly involves the creation of poetry in classical style and hence adds to the tradition of Classical literature. It also helps to bring focus on diverse aspects of language and literature. For example, in the case of Kannada Avadhaanam I perform, someone may ask me to compose poetry in Halagannada (Old Kannada) style and some may ask me to compose using Nadugannada (Middle Kannada) or Modern Kannada language and styles. Hence, a Kannada literary tradition of more than 1000 years is all brought into action in a single performance.

Further, Avadhaanam contains an element of wonder that naturally arouses curiosity among the audience. This in-turn leads to many uninitiated people to take up literature, poetry, and Avadhaanam. And here in this art, flawless and grammatically perfect language has to be used. The idiomatic beauty, aesthetics, and poetic tenets need to be perfectly adhered to. By this, the purity of the language is maintained. Thus, Avadhaanam contributes immensely to the growth and flourishing of literature and language.

NS: Can you briefly share regarding the History and origins of Avadhaanam? When and where did it originate? In what languages was Avadhaanam practiced historically?

SG: Avadhaanam has its origin in the recitation of the Vedas itself. The Vedas can to be recited in various manners called as Prakriti and Vikruti. Prakruti is of two types and Vikruti is of eight types called as ‘Ashta Vikruti Patha’. And these methods of recitation of Vedas require enormous concentration.

Around 2000 years ago, Avadhaanam developed into an art. In the list of 64 arts mentioned by Vatsayana in his Kamasutra, more than sixteen of them belong to the realm of this art. Example: Manasi (retention), Kavya-Kalpa (poetry and poetics) and Samasya-Poorna (art of solving cryptic verses) among others.

Sanskrit language is the mother of this art as it was originally developed in Sanskrit. Later it spread to other languages like Prakrit, Kannada, and Telugu. Though Avadhaanam was widely practiced in all these languages, it is in Kannada literature that one finds the complete definition and description of an Ashataavadhaanam performance documented around 800 years ago by a poet named Kaama in his work ‘Sringara-Ratnakara’. And around ninety percent of the procedure which Kaama has mentioned is still being followed today.

In Kannada language, the performance of this art goes back to at least 1000 years. Mallideva, Madhava, Vishwanatha, and Kanti are few examples of famous Avadhaanis in the olden times. Then, in early 20th century, the well play writer, poet, and theater scholar Bellave Narahari Shastri was also an Avadhaani.

In Andhra Pradesh, we have a very rich tradition of Avadhaanis in Telugu and Sanskrit. It highly flourished in the 13th and 14th century with famous Avadhaanis like Pedanna, Ramaraja Bhushana, and many more people occupying the stage. Then, in late the 19th century and early 20th century we had great Avadhaanis in Andhra like Devarupalli brothers, Tirupati Venkata twin poets, Veluri Shivarama Shastri, etc.

Even today, in the world of Avadhaanam, there are many highly renowned and well versed Avadhaanis from Andhra Pradesh. For example, Garikapati Narasimha Rao, Kadimella Varaprasad, Medasani Mohan etc.

In Tamil Nadu also, we can find many Avadhaanis present around 15th century. But, the pattern of Avadhaanam practiced there is different. It is more of a memory task and less of poetic creation. This pattern is also practiced among the Jain monks in Gujarat using mathematical calculations and very few verse compositions mainly in Prakrit and Sanskrit. A tradition of this art was also taken to Sri Lanka by Tamil Avadhaanis. Recently, a few people have tried performing Avadhaanam in Hindi language as well.

It is in Karnataka and Andhra region that Avadhaanam has reached its zenith in Kannada, Telugu, and Sanskrit languages.

Also Read: Avadhaanam is best among arts, in a sense it is the soul of all arts: Shataavadhaani R. Ganesh

NS: You are often credited with reviving Kannada Avadhaanam in current times. Can you shed light on how and when did it decline in the past?

SG: Well, the art more or less declined after the 17th century, though few stray performances could be observed even after that. There are many reasons for it. First, it is a very difficult art.

Second, any competent Avadhaani will have to invest a lot of time, energy, in fact whole life towards it. So, naturally he would expect a lot of returns. But, without proper patronage, returns are obviously very less. Thus, decline in proper patronage directly results in decline in Avadhaanam performances.

Third, it being a highly sophisticated classical art, it is neither understood nor appreciated by every person. Thus, the reach of Avadhaanam is limited to those who appreciate literature and understand its intricacies.

Fourth, in Karnataka, devotion and religion were the driving force behind literature and literature was largely nurtured by various religious movements and not by pure Rasikas (the lovers of art). This also contributed to the decline of Avadhaanam which is a classical literary performance that mainly appeals to Rasikas. On the other hand, in Andhra region where there were no such religious movements, literature survived among the scholars in the courts. Thus, art never declined in Andhra.

Fifth, the rise of Navodaya literature during the beginning of the 20th century, which was more influenced by modern poetry of the West than the Indian Classical literature. This also contributed to the continued decline of Avadhaanam. I have dealt on the history of this art in depth in my Doctoral thesis- ‘Kannadadalli Avadhaana Kale’ (The art of Avadhaanam in Kannada).

Thus, after 17th century, the Avadhaanam was revived only in 20th century by Bellave Narahari Shastri who performed in 1933-36 and then later after a gap of around 45 years, by me in 1981. Another person is J. Sadananda Shastri, who started performing in 1985. Now, many people have started performing this art like Dr. Shankar who performs Sanskrit Avadhaanam, Ganesha Bhatta Koppala Tota, and Vasanta Bharadwaja, who perform Kannada Avadhaanam and Dr. Ramakrishna Pijattaya, who performs both in Kannada and Sanskrit.

NS: You are from a science background and you did BE in Mechanical engineering. What led you to take up this art?

SG: Since my childhood, I was basically a poet. In my school days I used to compose poems and used to participate in literary activities like debates, extempore, etc. I was also initiated into various fine arts like music, dance, painting, sculpture, etc. My mother was the driving spirit behind all these things. Hence, language and literature in a sense became an inseparable part of me. Even while I was pursuing my engineering, I used to read all classical literature in not only Indian languages like Prakrit, but also in Greek, Latin, etc. So, I was spontaneously attracted towards this art.

NS: Avadhaanam is usually differentiated into Ashataavadhaanam, Shataavadhaanam etc. Can you shed more light on this? How many Avadhaanams have you performed till date? When was the largest Avadhaanam performed in history and who performed it?

SG: Ashataavadhaanam refers to Avadhaanam’s having eight questioners (called Prucchakkas) who question the Avadhaani. Similarly, in Shataavadhaanam, there will be 100 questioners; in Dvishata or Trishata Avadhaanams, there will be 200 and 300 questioners respectively; in Sahasraavadhaanam, there are 1000 questionnaires. Avadhaanams could be performed with 10 questioners called Dashaavadhaanam, or 12 questioners called Dwadashaavadhaanam.

Apart from this, there is Gunitaavadhaanam or simultaneous performance of multiple Ashataavadhaanams. I have performed two simultaneous Avadhanas, one in Sanskrit and one in Kannada. I have also performed Chatur-Gunitaavadhaanam, consisting of 4 groups of questioners each group having 8 people. Similarly, Tri-Gunitaavadhaanam consists of 24 questioners in three different groups. In Andhra, some Avadhaanis have performed Dasha-gunitaavadhaana consisting of 80 questioners as well.

A general Ashtaavadhaana will take around 3 hours. A Shataavadhaanam will take 3 days with each day consisting of two 4-hour sessions. The Sahasraavadhaanam is the largest Avadhaanam that has been performed and it takes around one whole month. But, the basic unit of the art is Ashatavadhaanam– consisting of 8 questioners.

I have performed around 1016 Ashataavadhaanams, including Dashaavadhaanams and Dwadashaavadhaanams; 5 Shataavadhaanam; and 5 Gunitaavadhaanam.

NS: Can you shed some light about the present status of Avadhaanam in various languages? Has the interest of people declining or is it increasing? What future do you see for the art?

SG: As I said before, it is well flourishing now in Kannada and Telugu. In my knowledge only one person is doing it in Tamil. Few Jain monks in Gujarat may still be practicing. I have encountered lot of enthusiasm and interest among people for Avadhaanam. I have witnessed more number of people coming to some of my Avadhaanams than the crowd present in Kavi Sammelans (gathering of poets).

When I performed Kannada Shataavadhaana in December 2012, then for three days, around 1000 people came and watched for 12 hours from morning till night each day. So, there is a definite enthusiasm and support among the people. But, no support is available from our Government bodies, Universities, Academies or from writers.

A video of Kannada Avadhaanam performed by Shataavadhaani Dr. R. Ganesh available on Youtube:

(Photo Credit: namesake-expert.blogspot.com)

More in the Series:

Interview of Shataavadhaani R. Ganesh: Part 2

Next Story

EXCLUSIVE: Vishwanath Sanskrit Vidyalaya in Delhi is trying to keep the Cultural Roots Alive in Students through Sanskrit Language

What makes this Sanskrit School different from others?

Chintamanni Vedpathi with students
Chintamanni Vedpathi with students. Youtube
  • Vishwanath Sanskrit Vidyalaya  is one of the oldest Sanskrit Institutions in Delhi
  • Students wear white dhoti and shirt, they greet their guru or teacher by clasping their hands together
  • The Sri Vishwanath Sanyas Ashram takes care of the student’s  food by providing them with free food and they also stay in hostel free of cost  

New Delhi, August 30, 2017: There is a school in Delhi away from the overdose of technology and westernization. This school is trying to strengthen the roots of Indian culture by giving the gyan (knowledge) of Sanskrit to their students.

Reporter Kritika Dua got in touch with the teachers of Vishwanath Sanskrit Vidyalaya– Jai Prakash Mishra and Rajendra Sharma to know what is so special about this Delhi-based School. To get the taste of the pattern that this school follows, she spoke with students- Virender Tiwari and Pushpendra Chaturvedi who shared some interesting anecdotes about the school.

This Sanskrit Vidyalaya is one of the oldest Sanskrit Institutions in Delhi, where classes begin at 11 am and end at 4.10 p.m. The school has produced many Sanskrit scholars in the past and it is run by Sri Vishwanath Sanyas Ashram, which is located just opposite to the school.

On entering the classroom, you can see students wearing white dhoti and shirt, students greet their guru or teacher by clasping their hands together and sit on the carpeted floor while learning at the Vidyalaya.

One of the teachers at this school, Jai Prakash Mishra said, “around 55-60 students stay in the hostel, rest of them come from other areas in Delhi to study here. The ones who stay in hostel come from different states like Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Rajasthan.”

Entrance of Vishwanath Sanskrit Vidyalaya, Delhi.
Entrance of Vishwanath Sanskrit Vidyalaya, Delhi

Students having interest in learning the ancient language of India are welcome in this school, no matter which part of the country they belong to. The only requirement is to be a good shisya (pupil) – he should be serious towards education, ready to lead a disciplined life and should be hard-working.

Mishra added, “the Sri Vishwanath Sanyas Ashram takes care of the student’s  food by providing them with free food and they also stay in hostel free of cost.” There are 10 teachers currently in this school.

Volleyball Court in School Playground
Volleyball Court in School Playground

The students play Volleyball and Cricket in the school playground though there is no sports teacher in the school. Rajendra Sharma, Hindi teacher said, “The students here can get the education -9th class and 10th class called purva madhyama, 11th and 12th called uttar madhyama, till graduation called Shastri though they get a post-graduation degree from the school. The degree they get is from Sampurnanand Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya (SSVV), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh as the school is affiliated with this university.”

The School teaches other subjects apart from Sanskrit like Hindi, history, science, English literature, English Grammar, law etc.  Sharma told about his expectations from the students, “Our students are preserving Indian Culture by learning Sanskrit. I wish that they have a bright future ahead.”

ALSO READ: Move to Make Sanskrit Classes Mandatory Raises Ruckus in Assam

The students of this all boy’s school have short cropped hair which is sometimes shaven heads with tufts of hair at the back. They are rooted in Indian culture which can be seen through their behavior, good manners, dressing and talking sense.

Rahul Shukla, a 9th class student said that he can recite shlokas perfectly and wants to be a Shastri when he grows up. Vishwanath Sanskrit Vidyalaya has branches in Haridwar, Varanasi, Shimla, Kolkata, Mount Abu, and Bikaner.

Virender Tiwari (19) is pursuing graduation from this school and here the B.A first year course is called Shastriya Pratham, and he will become a Shastri after he completes his graduation. Tiwari said, “my experience has been extremely enriching in this school so far, all the knowledge I have of Sanskrit is because of what I have been taught here.”

Pushpendra Chaturvedi completed his graduation last year, now he lives in Dilshad Garden and is a priest in a temple. Pushpendra said, “I came to this school in the 9th standard, this school did a lot for me and I have fond memories of this place. I want to pursue B.ED and become a Sanskrit teacher.”

He talked about the ex-principal of the school, Ram Sarmukh Dwivedi, 95 years old Mahatma. He was a Sanskrit  Scholar and had in depth knowledge of Sanskrit language, literature, and ‘Ved Puran’. The current Principal of this unique Sanskrit school is Dr. Brahmachari Balram.

NewsGram is a Chicago-based non-profit media organization. We depend upon support from our readers to maintain our objective reporting. Show your support by Donating to NewsGram. Donations to NewsGram are tax-exempt.
Click here- www.newsgram.com/donate 


Next Story

Tamil Nadu Schools make Singing Vande Mataram Mandatory

The Madras court has announced that all schools throughout Tamil Nadu must make the singing of Vande Mataram mandatory

Vande Mataram Mandatory
Students are to sing the national song twice as per the Madras High Court ruling. Wikimedia
  • Singing Vande Mataram is now mandatory in every school of Tamil Nadu after Madras high court announced its ruling
  • The students are to sing the national song twice every week
  • Given a valid reason, an individual or group may be exempted from the decision

July 29, 2017: Tamil Nadu school students are now compelled to sing Vande Mataram as per the Madras High Court’s recent ruling. The national song is to be sung twice a week.

Private as well as government schools have been instructed to comply with the ruling and confirm that it is implemented in their schools.

ALSO READ: First Clap: Short Film Fest to Unearth Budding Filmmakers from Tamil Nadu

The Madras Court’s ruling was the result of a petition filed by K Veeramani. Mr. Veeramani, interestingly, was unsuccessful in clearing the written test in the process of recruiting teachers because of a question related to the National song, mentioned PTI.

In an objective type question, K Veeramani selected Bengali as the original language in which national song was written. This answer was considered wrong by the board. Veeramani scored 89 while the cut off was 90. For this one mark and “wrongfully” missing the opportunity to work, he petitioned to the High Court.

And he was right. Advocate General R Muthukumarswamy agreed to K Veeramani’s claim. The National Song was originally penned in the Bengali Language.

PTI reports Justice M V Muralidharan gave no actual reasons behind this verdict. The Justice also said that Monday and Friday should be the ideal days.

Justice M V Muralidharan’s ruling is backed by Article 226 of the constitution; The High court posses the power to pass orders within their juridicial territory upon any individual or group. The Judge also stated, “If people feel it is difficult to sing the song in Bengali or in Sanskrit, steps can be taken to translate the song in Tamil. The youth of this country are the future of tomorrow and the court hopes and trusts that this order shall be taken in the right spirit and also implemented in letter and spirit by the citizenry of this great nation.”

– prepared by Saksham Narula of NewsGram. Twitter: @Saksham2394

Next Story

World Telugu Conference to be held in Hyderabad in June: Telangana CM

The conference will coincidence with Telangana's formation day celebrations

Telangana Chief Minister K. Chandrasekhar Rao with PM Narendra Modi , Twitter

Hyderabad, May 2, 2017: World Telugu Conference will be held here from June 2 to June 10, Telangana Chief Minister K. Chandrasekhar Rao announced on Tuesday.

The conference will coincidence with Telangana’s formation day celebrations.

The proposed conference and celebrations would be done under the supervision of the newly-formed Telangana Sahitya Academy, said a statement from the Chief Minister’s office.

NewsGram brings to you latest new stories in India.

Rao also decided to constitute Telangana Lalitha Kala Academy, Sangeet Nataka Academy and Folk Arts Academy.

He said that best Telugu dialect and best poetry is available in Telangana and the academies should become platforms to spread the literary flavour of Telangana to the world.

The CM held a review meeting on the organisation of the World Telugu Conference.

He asked officials to conduct the proposed World Telugu Conference and its programmes in such a manner that they should be heard and talked about world over and become a milestone in the history.

He wanted well known and prominent literary personalities, followers of the Telugu language living within the country and abroad to be invited for the conference.

As part of the conference, poets’ gatherings (Kavi Sammelanas)and conferences on various genres of literature will be organised. (IANS)