Tuesday October 17, 2017

Find out how our Immune System is related to Brain Functioning

The scientists found that immune system signalling can directly affect, and even change, social behaviour in mice and other model animals.

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Connection between Brain and Immune System. Image Source: www.deccanchronicle.com
  • The researchers developed and employed a novel systems-biology approach to investigate the complex dialogue between immune signalling and brain function in health and disease
  • The researchers predicted an unexpected role for interferon gamma (IFN-?), an important substance secreted by immune cells, in promoting social brain functions
  • Restoring of IFN-?-signalling in the brain normalised brain activity and social behaviour

A new research suggests that neurological diseases such as autism-spectrum disorders and schizophrenia can be caused by malfunctioning of immune system

Autism: A Neurological Disease. Image Source: www.americanhealthreview.com
Autism: A Neurological Disease. Image Source: www.americanhealthreview.com

“Our findings contribute to a deeper understanding of social dysfunction in neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, and may open new avenues for therapeutic approaches,” said Vladimir Litvak, Assistant Professor at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in the US.

The study was published in the journal Nature.

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The researchers developed and employed a novel systems-biology approach to investigate the complex dialogue between immune signalling and brain function in health and disease.

Immune defence. Image Source: www.huffingtonpost.ca
Immune defence. Image Source: www.huffingtonpost.ca

Using this approach, the scientists found that immune system signalling can directly affect, and even change, social behaviour in mice and other model animals.

The researchers predicated an unexpected role for interferon gamma (IFN-?), an important substance secreted by immune cells, in promoting social brain functions.

In the course of the research, they found that blocking IFN-? in mice made mouse brains become hyperactive and caused atypical social behaviour.

Tridimensional structure of human interferon gamma. Image Source: en.wikipedia.org
Tridimensional structure of human interferon gamma. Image Source: en.wikipedia.org

Restoring of IFN-?-signalling in the brain normalised brain activity and social behaviour.

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“The brain and the adaptive immune system were thought to be isolated from each other, and any immune activity in the brain was perceived as a sign of pathology,” said Jonathan Kipnis from the University of Virginia.

“And now, not only are we showing that they are closely interacting, but some of our behaviour traits might have evolved because of our immune response to pathogens,” Kipnis explained. (IANS)

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Bacterial infection in pregnancy may up autism risk in kids

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Bacterial infection in pregnancy may up autism risk in kids. Pixabay

New York, September 15, 2017: Babies born to mothers who experience a bacterial infection severe enough to require hospitalisation during pregnancy may be at higher risk of developing autism, a study has found.

The study, conducted on mice, revealed that the composition of bacterial populations in the mother’s digestive tract can influence whether maternal infection leads to repetitive behaviour and impaired sociability — autistic-like behaviours in offspring.

Further, irregularities that the researchers call “patches” are most common in a part of the brain known as “S1DZ” and were responsible for the behavioural abnormalities seen in mice.

“We identified a very discrete brain region that seems to be modulating all the behaviours associated with this particular model of neurodevelopmental disorder,” said Gloria Choi, Assistant Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in the paper appearing in the journal Nature.

A second study in the same jounal, revealed that not all mothers who experience severe infection end up having child with autism, and similarly not all the mice in the maternal inflammation model develop behavioural abnormalities.

“This suggests that inflammation during pregnancy is just one of the factors. It needs to work with additional factors to lead all the way to that outcome,” Choi said.

Moreover, the researchers found that only the offspring of mice with one specific type of harmless bacteria, known as segmented filamentous bacteria, had behavioural abnormalities and cortical patches.

When the researchers killed those bacteria with antibiotics, the mice produced normal offspring.

If validated in human studies, the findings could offer a possible way to reduce the risk of autism, which would involve blocking the function of certain strains of bacteria found in the maternal gut, the researchers noted. (IANS)

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High-Frequency Magnetic Pulses May Treat “Hearing of Voices” Condition of Schizophrenia Patients: Study

People with schizophrenia experience delusions, muddled thoughts, and hallucinations

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"Hearing of voices" condition experienced by schizophrenia patients. Pixabay

London, Sep 06, 2017: Researchers have found that high-frequency magnetic pulses can improve “hearing of voices” condition experienced by many patients with schizophrenia.

The research presented at the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) conference in Paris identified the area of the brain involved in the condition in some patients.

Also Read: New hormone test may distinguish schizophrenia, depression  

“This is the first controlled trial to precisely determine an anatomically defined brain area where high frequency magnetic pulses can improve the hearing of voices,” said lead researcher Sonia Dollfus, Professor at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen in France.

Schizophrenia is a serious long-term mental health problem. People with schizophrenia experience a range of symptoms, which may include delusions, muddled thoughts and hallucinations.

One of the best-known is hearing voices, also known as Auditory Verbal Hallucination (AVH), which around 70 per cent of people with schizophrenia experience at some point.

These voices, may be ‘heard’ as having a variety of different characteristics, for example as internal or external, friendly or threatening, they may be continuously present or present only occasionally, and so on.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), which uses magnetic pulses to the brain, has been suggested as a possible way of treating the hearing of voices in schizophrenia.

However, there is a lack of controlled trials to show that TMS works effectively in treating “hearing of voices”.

The French research team worked with a small group of patients who received active TMS treatment. A control group received sham (placebo) treatment.

The researchers interviewed the patients using a standard protocol — the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale — which revealed most of the characteristic features of the voices which they were hearing.

The treated patients received a series of 20 Hz high-frequency magnetic pulses over two sessions a day for two days.

Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the pulses were targetted at a specific brain area in the temporal lobe, which is associated with language.

After two weeks, the patients were re-evaluated. The researchers found that 34.6 per cent of the patients being treated by TMS showed a significant response, whereas only 9.1 per cent of patients in the sham group responded. (IANS)

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Eat According to Your Blood Type and See the Benefits Yourself!

When was the last time you thought about your blood type? Probably when you were thinking about donating blood. But what if we told you it should be of primary concern when deciding about your diet?

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Ayurvedic diet tips
Looking for a lifestyle shift? Try the Ayurvedic diet and see the benefits for yourself! Pixabay
  • Researches assert that blood group affects our health and well-being
  • Blood Type Diet focuses on the consumption of specific foods that aid bodily functions
  • Staying active, regular exercise and the right food consumption are key to a healthy lifestyle

New Delhi, August 24, 2017 : Exhausted after meager activity? Are you tired of your dull face? Do you suffer from recurring diseases? Are you trying to lose weight? Do you want to adopt a healthier lifestyle? You can change your diet, or begin a new work out. But there is nothing that you can possibly do to change your blood type. Wondering what is the connection between a healthy life and your blood type?

Various studies assert that our blood group is the primary genetic factor that affects our health and well-being to a large extent.

If your friend is having troubles gaining weight, while you struggle to lose some of it despite a healthy diet and regular exercise, it may be because of your blood type. Alternatively, it also interacts with our immune system altering our risk for several common diseases. According to the blood type, mood swings and temperament of the person may also fluctuate and vary between individuals.

How Does Blood Type Affect Our Health And Body

Determines susceptibility to specific diseases 

According to researches, people with certain blood groups are at a higher risk of some diseases. For example, individuals with blood type O are understood to be at a high risk of stomach ulcers but at a lower risk of heart diseases and blood type A is believed to have higher risk of microbial infections.

  • Reaction to stress

People with type O blood tend to overproduce adrenaline as a reaction to stress. Thus, they take longer to recompose following a stressful situation as they take a while to clear the adrenaline from their bodies.

  • Influence on gut bacteria

Different types gut bacteria are known to have been found in people of different blood types. For example, the micro-biome present in individuals with blood type A break down carbohydrates more efficiently than those with blood type O, who store carbs as fats in their bodies.

ALSO READ: Should we revive ancestral dietary lifestyle for good health?

Food fads are just that, fads. They come and go. Not everybody has the same primary nutritional requirement.

Deepika Dua Arora, a Dietitian at Mutation Diet Clinic, Gurugram asserts the complementary relationship between one’s blood group and the nutritional aspect. According to her, the blood group diet allows us to keep in check our hereditary medical troubles like cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, etc.

What Is Blood Type Diet?

The Blood Type Diet focuses on the consumption of specific foods that aid bodily functions like allow better digestion, increase the body’s energy level, prevent illnesses and diseases and additionally help lose weight.

blood type
A combination of healthy food and right exercise is necessary for a healthy body and mind. Pixabay

Dietitians strictly stress the importance of Rh factor while planning diets.

Rhesus factor is a category of protein present on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). Individuals with Rhesus factor are Rh positive while those who lack the compound are Rh negative.

Rh factor plays an important role in diets as individuals with Rh negative blood type are more prone to lgE allergies than Rh positive.

Rh negative reacts with multiple foods like nuts, beans eggs among other things, thus, their diets must be planned accordingly. Individuals with Rh negative blood groups should consume more starch like brown sugar, poha, wheat burger, etc.

Right Food For Your Blood Type

An important concept to understand is that not everybody has the same primary nutritional requirement. In addition to this, there are several nutrients that are not absorbed by specific blood groups. Together, this can give rise to serious health problems. Thus, it is recommended to have food that is complimentary to one’s blood type.

We provide you with a list of foods that are great for specific blood types,

Blood Group: O

Garlic, Ginger, Lettuce, Broccoli, Okra, Onions, Turnip, Cherries, Plums, Figs, Berries (Raspberries, Cranberries, Gooseberries)

Individuals with blood type should consume more fermented foods – sandwich, dhokla, dosa, etc. Additionally, a good quantity of animal protein can also be consumed- – egg whites, fish, chicken.

  • Blood Group: A

Rice, Oats, Pasta, Pumpkin, Peanuts, Apricots, Figs, Lemons, Raisins,

Individuals with this blood type should consume more of wheat and roughage based vegetarian food- wheat bran, brown rice, brown poha, soya, besan chilla etc. They should avoid animal protein as it can prove to be unsuitable for them.

Blood type
Wheat and roughage based vegetarian food are good for people with type A blood. Pixabay

  • Blood Group: B

Green vegetables, Eggs, Low-fat dairy.

Individuals with this blood type should consume more milk products and animal proteins, however, wheat does not suit them much – paneer, eggs, fish, oat meal, and oat bran.

  • Blood Group: AB

Seafood, Yoghurt, Tofu, Goat Milk, Egg, Walnuts, Millets, Oats, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Beets, Cucumber, Plums, Berries.

Individuals with this blood type should consume combination foods that can prove to be extremely beneficial – rice + daal, chapati + daal, khichdi, dalia, brown rice (pulav) etc.

ALSO READ: Adopting these Ancient Food Practices Will Help You to Live a Healthy Life

Foods To Avoid According To Your Blood Type

As has been stressed repeatedly, consuming the right food helps prevent and cure chronic illnesses and certain diseases. It not only good for the body but for the soul, too.

This brings to light the need to avoid foods that are not compatible with your blood type in order to avoid health problems, weight issues, and stress.

  • Blood Group: O

Spinach, cabbage, eggplant, mushrooms, oranges, kiwi, strawberry coconut, green peas, peanut butter

Consumption of wheat starches is not good for individuals with this blood type.

  • Blood Group: A

Banana, coconut, cashew, papaya, pistachios, beer

Individuals with this blood type should avoid animal foods- chicken, fish, eggs. Additionally, oats are also not good for them.

Blood group
Oats and bananas are not suitable for individuals with blood group A. Pixabay

  • Blood Group: B

Corn, tomatoes, sesame seeds, peanuts

Individuals with this blood type should also avoid oats and animal foods- chicken, fish, eggs

  • Blood Group: AB

Whole milk, caffeine, alcohol, black tea, corn, coconut, mangoes, bananas

Individuals with this blood type must not starve themselves as the gap in between meals is not healthy for them.

4 Rules To A Healthier Life 

  1. Break the myth that one needs to have three meals in a day. Always have small, healthy meals throughout the day at regular intervals. This will manage insulin levels, keep hunger in check and supplement the body with a constant source of energy.
  2. Do not confuse thirst with hunger. This can add a few extra, unnecessary calories which might be difficult to be digested and processed by the body.
  3. Always read the label on food products. Calculate the calorie information provided to accommodate the product into your calorie allowance while on a weight loss schedule.
  4. If you think only food is going to lead you to a healthier life, you need to think again. Staying active and regular exercise are key to a healthy lifestyle.

 


 

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