As a part of Sangam: Festival of India in Sri Lanka, an exhibition of Traditional Handicrafts and Textiles entitled India-Sri Lanka Shilpa Kala is being organised by the High Commission of India, Colombo in collaboration with the Investment and Technology Promotion Division, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India from 23 – 27, March, 2016 at…
- Handicrafts are the products which are mostly made by hand.
- The history of Indian handicrafts can be divided into three eras: Pre British, British era, and Post Independence.
- Clay craft is the earliest form of crafts to have existed in India.
New Delhi, September 28, 2017: Handicrafts in India have a long history. From ancient to the contemporary times, handcrafters have preserved this art. This art has been passed on from one generation to the next. Pottery making, in fact, is one of its forms, whose existence can be traced back to the Harappan Civilization.
What are handicrafts?
Handicrafts are products that are produced either completely by hands or involve tools. Mechanical tools could also be used as long as the manual contribution of the artisan remains the central component of the produced object. The production of these crafts require great skill and represents a particular expression, culture or tradition. Handicrafts could hold a number of values, some of them being aesthetic, cultural, decorative, utilitarian, religious, functional etc.
Historical Perspective of Indian Handicrafts:
To understand the historical perspective of Indian handicrafts, we need to go back in time. Let’s take a look at the development and decline of the artisanal production under three different time periods: before the arrival of British in India, Under colonial rule, and after India got independence.
History of Indian Handicrafts Before the arrival of British:
Art and crafts, as we have already mentioned, has been a tradition in India since long. Textiles, the most important of the Indian handicrafts, reached the zenith of perfection during the Mughal period. While under Mughals, it was the art of weaving and silk spinning that scored refinement; it was metal works, ivory works and jewelry that reached great potential during the Gupta period. The handicrafts production during that time can be divided in four broad categories. The first category dealt with the village economy under the jajmani system, in which the products were articles of daily use. The second category was integrated with the urban areas, where artisans produced crafts mainly for the purpose of sale. The third category concerns the dadni system, in which the merchants advanced cash to the artisans for production. The final category includes the Karkhanas, where skilled artisans produced luxury crafts under the command of kings or high nobles. Handicraft production was the second biggest source of employment in the pre-British India.
History of Indian Handicrafts Under Colonial Rule:
Under the British rule, production of Indian Handicrafts faced a rather sharp decline. When the East India Company was in power, it forced monopoly over the production of artisans from Bengal, and the price of these products were fixed 15-40% lower than their actual market price. What came as the biggest blow to the Indian artisans, however, was the removal of most of the Indian princes and nobles, which as an effect, led to the destruction of the artisan’s major market.
History of Indian Handicrafts Post-Independence:
The plight of the artisans and the cultural importance of artisanal production was taken into accord after India got independent. The establishment of All India Handicrafts Board in November 1952, to look at the problems and find solutions concerning Indian Handicrafts; the Handicrafts and Handloom Export Corporation of India Ltd in 1958, to promote handicrafts exports; Opening of Crafts Mueseum in 1953 in Delhi, to develop people’s interest in handmade Indian goods, all alluded to the idea that India had finally realized the importance of its art and crafts, and did not want to leave any stone unturned for its development.
A brief history and development of different form of handicrafts in India:
- Clay craft and pottery: Clay craft is the earliest form of crafts to have existed, in India or in the world. A simple earthenware made of clay or ceramic has been created and used by the rural population for centuries. Potters have had an integral traditional link with the villages. The earthen pottery has only been developing, with the addition of new colors, figures of gods and goddesses, and decorative elements like flowers.
Main centers: Uttar Pradesh (Nizamabad and Chinhat), where the pottery is dark black; Bengal which produces large figures of gods, especially on the occasion of Durga Puja; In Kashmir, Srinagar is the place where special glazed pottery is made; Terra-cotta roof tiles are a tradition in Orissa and Martha Pradesh; both Rajasthan and Karnataka are popular for their black pottery; Manipur in the northeast is also famous for its pottery.
- Wood craft: Wood craft is widely produced and used throughout the country, with the most important products being household furnitures, carts and decorative objects. Baskets for storage and Toys, both for play and decoration are also made on a large scale.
Main centers: The elegant use of wood by skilled craftsmen can be seen in the houses at Gujrat and Kerala. Kashmir acquires a special position in this category of craft, with the walnut and deodar being the most favorite woods there. Saharanpur in U.P is also quite famous for its wooden furniture and objects of decoration.
- Metal craft: Copper was the most widely used metal in India before Iron joined in. Utensils, jewelry, dagger, axe heads etc in the harappan finds suggest that casting of copper objects made use of moulds. Bronze was also an important metal for the artisan production. The skills of craftsmen on metals are of various types, such as embossing, engraving, moulding etc.
Main centers: Kashmir (Srinagar) and Ladakh (Zanskar) are the two main centres. In Uttar Pradesh, Moradabad, Aligarh, Varanasi are the main centres of metal craft. Kerala specializes in the bell metal, whereas Bidar in Karnataka is noted for its Bidri work. Tribal groups in India also appear to hold their specific metal craft traditions.
- Stone craft: Stones, without a shadow of doubt, have been there with humans since the earliest. They have been crafted into various products such as tools, decorative objects, sculptures and even jewelry. Statue of Yakshi of Didarganj is one fine piece of stone sculpture and dates back to the Maurya period. Majestic Qutub Minar in Delhi, and forts at Agra, Delhi, Jaipur are all works of stone craft.
Main centers: Rajasthan due to a large availability of stones tops the list of most prominent places for stone works. Salem district in Tamil Nadu also makes it to the list along with Gaya in Bihar. The stone cutters of Orissa also share a long history with the craft.
- Ornaments and jewelry: From grass jewelry to that of gold and diamonds, one can witness great diversity when it comes to ornaments and jewelry in India. Gold, gems, silver, diamonds, other metals and precious stones are some materials used for making ornaments. Bones, horns, sea shells, lac, glass etc are also used in many parts of the country to create ornaments. The Harappan finds revealed a number of ornaments, indicating their existence since long. There are many references in Ramayana and Mahabharata of gold being precious objects.
Main centers: Western ghats and Matheran in Maharashtra are noted for grass ornaments. Gujarat and Rajasthan share a rich and long tradition of jewelry. Kashmir is one of the most prominent places, again, with its exquisite jewelry, Varanasi and Awadh of U.P. are famous for gold studded jewelry.
- Textiles: India had had one of the richest traditions of textiles made from different raw materials. It won’t be wrong to say that Indian textiles tend to reflect Indian culture and religious beliefs. Bengal was the chief center of cotton production and Carpet weaving reached its zenith at the time of Mughals. The most commonly knows fabrics are cotton, wool and silk. The three main techniques used for patterning are weaving, embroidery and dyes.
Main centers: Orissa and Andhra Pradesh are famous for ikat fabric, Gujarat and Rajasthan for bandhani, U.P. and Bengal for jamdani fabrics. Rajasthan is also noted for Masoria fabric.
-prepared by Samiksha Goel of NewsGram. Twitter @goel_samiksha
– by Tusheeta Kaushik
July 31, 2017: Curated by Jitendra Padam Jain, an exhibition titled “Memesis” was a solo show of Prints and Painting by artist Rajni Sahni and was conducted at Shridharani Art Gallery at Triveni Kala Sangam from July 11th- 21st in New Delhi. “Memesis”, she says, is a representation of herself and the visual perceptions she had in her mind during the time of pregnancy.
Reporter Tusheeta Kaushik of NewsGram spoke to Rajni Sahni on how different forms of visual arts helped her in expressing her mind s visual perceptions in reality, on how art is such a potent form of creative expression which helps in soothing her mind whenever she s going through different emotions and phases in life and on how her mother found the spark and talent in her when she was a little girl.
Tusheeta: When did you realize your passion for art? When was the first time you expressed yourself through art?
Rajni: I realized my passion for art when I passed my diploma in painting from South Delhi Polytechnic College. There, an art critic appreciated it and then there was no turning back after Santiniketan. I started expressing myself through art when I found an artist in myself and that was during my Santiniketan days.
Tusheeta: Anyone or anything that inspired you to take this art form?
Rajni: As a little girl, I was inspired by my mother since she used to appreciate my work and pushed me to never stop myself from expressing through drawings and sketches. Later, as a student at South Delhi Polytechnic College for Women, Professor Jain Gajera inspired me through his works and teachings.
Tusheeta: How did painting help you or relax you at the time of conceiving?
Rajni: Painting had a huge calming effect on me during my 9-month pregnancy! I had some critical conditions. I was there in a room for 6 months and had difficulty in moving from the bed. So, it was my husband who insisted me a lot on unleashing my pain and emotions through art. I agreed and the depiction of my imagination through the usage of different colours made me calm and composed. That s when I thought of starting a series named “Memesis” which depicts my inner feelings during the time of pregnancy. Etching, Painting, Print Making, Lithography, Paper Pulp Casting and Sculpture making are different forms of visual arts that I have worked on.
Tusheeta: You’ve mentioned about the magical relation with your daughter. How and why is it so unique and special to you?
Rajni: (Laughing) My daughter is a big critic of my art work. Her appreciation, criticism, guidance and support matters to me. She herself is great at craft making. She s in class 6th and I m glad that I m close to her and the fact that she likes sharing about her daily routine with me.
Tusheeta: You’ve talked about the complex, yet compassionate and a lovable relationship between a mother and her daughter. How this powerful relationship is depicted in your work?
Rajni: I have made a few art works showcasing my relationship with my daughter. I also have had a powerful relationship with my mother, she s been my pillar and I love my daughter immensely, that s the reason I love to showcase the beauty of a mother and daughter relationship through my art work.
Tusheeta: So, when do you usually paint and what kind of impact does painting have on you?
Rajni: See, it s not just about me as an artist. Any artist out there doesn’t t really have a regular time schedule for painting. Whenever I feel like painting, I paint. I might work on my art piece for a week then I might work on some other piece after a month. It all depends on my mood and whenever I feel like expressing something. I love painting, it has made me what I m today.
– reported by Tusheeta Kaushik of NewsGram. Twitter @TusheetaKaushik
- The Dorset Indian Mela is an Indian Food Festival
- On August 26 the Dorset Mela is is going to be held in Poole, United Kingdom
- The festival will raise money funds for Forest Holme Hospice, a care unit
UK, July 27, 2017: The Dorset Indian Mela, a popular Indian food festival is coming to Poole of the United Kingdom on August 26, this year. The Indian festival will showcase the different varieties of Indian cuisine, Indian culture, and heritage.
The Dorset Mela is set to exhibit stalls with a large variety of Indian cuisine. Additionally, stalls displaying handicrafts and henna paintings. Indian dance and music will also be present at the venue for the visitors to enjoy.
Dorset Indian Mela Committee’s spokesperson Bibin Venuanth spoke to Daily Echo, “Following the success of last year’s event, we are delighted to be bringing the Indian communities of Dorset together to present our second Indian food festival.”
India has different regions and their specialties to offer on the Dorset Festival. Bipin Venuanth said that the Indian Mela is estimated to generate enough funds through the crowd that it will take care of thousands of patients in Forest Holme Hospice hospital care unit.
This is not the first time that the Indian Mela by Dorset has been held. Last year’s festival showcased all 29 states and their representatives. Many families turned up for the event making it a grand success.
– prepared by Saksham Narula of NewsGram. Twitter: @Saksham2394