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Here is why varied tribes of India are marking separate Independence Day on August 31!

About 150 communities known as Vimukt Jati or denotified tribes (DNT's) were stated as the 'criminal tribes' by the British Government under the Criminal Tribes Act (CTA)

Baiga Tribe. Image source: Wikimedia Commons

August 31, 2016: The entire nation was reborn to freedom and liberty on the historic day of August 15, 1947, as we achieved Independence and established India as a free country. Hardly considering the fact that not the whole nation was able to pursue its freedom and celebrate, we celebrate the day as our Independence day.

Therefore, like every consecutive year, this year too- August 15 was celebrated as the 70th Independence day of the nation but being least bothered with the lesser known fact, that a particular section in our society is differentiated from this celebration and cornered from the society.

About 150 communities known as Vimukt Jati or denotified tribes (DNT’s) were stated as the ‘criminal tribes’ by the British Government under the Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) and they could only mark their Vimukti Diwas (Liberation Day) after waiting for five more years, on August 31, 1952. This happened only when the CTA was repealed across India.

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These communities are now ready to celebrate an additional Independence day in India and August 31, 2016, marks their 65 years of their liberation. Even though these communities are differentiated, today all of them will be standing together. While this can be called the largest gathering as this will be the day of celebration as well as protest. The event took place at the famous site of Jantar Mantar in New Delhi, reported a news portal.

Today these denotified tribes are free from the label of ‘criminal tribes’ but they still have to face the dishonour from the contemporary society. As they hold a history of hereditary criminals from their communities. These denotified tribes include roughly 20 million people that are scattered across the country, but the similar label of ‘Criminal tribes’ stated by the Criminal Tribes Act unites the vast population.

The law was enacted in the year 1871 that labelled these communities as criminals from birth.

The communities were restricted from basic rights and were supervised at every step on a daily basis. They were forced into labour settlements and penal colonies on the Andaman islands. All this disgrace could stop only after their denotification in the year 1952. At this time roughly 3.5 million people fall under the tag of ‘criminal tribes’ communities.

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Even though being free from stated as ‘Criminal tribes,’ these communities still face some or the other discrimination in the society, due to their history and association of some of the tribes in the criminal activities. Therefore, for a handful of people the whole tribe is disgraced and this has become a matter of concern. Apart from that, further, poverty and illiteracy pull them back.

Many of these tribes came together after the law was enacted in 1952. These tribes came to celebrate their ‘Vimukti Diwas’ or liberation day on August 31 by organising small celebration or local affairs.

As the time passed, the tribes gathered in large numbers for their demands to be heard. Though a lot is done in the society to support them, but these turned out to be shallow and volatile attempts which resulted in no conclusion.

These tribal communities are still differentiated in the contemporary Indian society and this year, 2016, marks their 65th Independence day. These tribes only demand liberty and acceptance from people around them.

prepared by Jagpreet Kaur Sandhu of NewsGram with inputs from various sources. Twitter: @jagpreet_ks9


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Pentavalent vaccine: Doctors raise red flag

In spite of the data presented in this paper from a large cohort, the authors point out that the evidence is merely circumstantial and not conclusive

the new Hepatitis B vaccine for adults is called Heplisav-B.
India's PV to be reexamined because of its harmful effects. .
  • Pentavalent vaccine was introduced in India six years ago
  • It is since then have been a cause of many deaths
  • Doctors want it to be reexamined before continuing its use

Pentavalent vaccine (PV), that was introduced by India a little over six years ago, doubled the deaths of children soon after vaccination compared to the DPT (Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus) vaccine, according to a new study that calls for a “rigorous review of the deaths following vaccination with PV”.

Health officials have launched a campaign targeting nearly 24 million people with a one-fifth dose of the vaccine. Wikimedia Commons
PV has been cause of many deaths in past years. Wikimedia Commons

Government records show that there were 10,612 deaths following vaccination (both PV and DPT) in the last 10 years. There was a huge increase in these numbers in 2017, which the Health Ministry has promised to study. “The present analysis could be a starting point in the quest to reduce the numbers of such deaths,” authors of the new study say.

The study by Dr Jacob Puliyel, Head of Pediatrics at St Stephens Hospital, and Dr V. Sreenivas, Professor of Biostatistics at the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), both in New Delhi, is published in the peer-reviewed Medical Journal of Dr D.Y. Patil University.

PV is a combination of the DPT vaccine and two more vaccines against Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) and hepatitis B. Starting December 2011, PV was introduced into India’s immunisation programme to replace DPT vaccine in a staged manner with a view to adding protection against Hib and Hepatitis B without increasing the number of injections given to infants.

Doctors have raised concerns over these vaccines. Wikimedia Commons
Doctors have raised concerns over these vaccines. Wikimedia Commons

But sporadic reports of unexplained deaths following immunisation with PV had been a matter of concern. Puliyel, Sreenivas and their colleagues undertook the study to find out if these deaths were merely coincidental or vaccine-induced.

The authors obtained data of all deaths reported from April 2012 to May 2016 under the Right to Information Act. Data on deaths within 72 hours of administering DPT and PV from different states were used.

For their study, the authors assumed that all deaths within 72 hours of receiving DPT are natural deaths. Using this figure as the baseline, they presumed that any increase in the number of deaths above this baseline among children receiving PV must be caused by this vaccine.

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According to their analysis of the data provided by the government, there were 237 deaths within 72 hours of administering the Pentavalent vaccine — twice the death rate among infants who received DPT vaccine.

Extrapolating the data, the authors have estimated that vaccination of 26 million children each year in India would result in 122 additional deaths within 72 hours, due to the switch from DPT to PV.

“There is likely to be 7,020 to 8,190 deaths from PV each year if data from states with the better reporting, namely Manipur and Chandigarh, are projected nationwide,” their report says.

It is important to make sure that these vaccines are reexamined peroperly. VOA

The authors note that while the study looks at the short-term increase in deaths (within three days of vaccination) it does not calculate the potential benefits of PV on infant mortality, for example by protection against lethal diseases like Haemophilus influenza.

In spite of the data presented in this paper from a large cohort, the authors point out that the evidence is merely circumstantial and not conclusive. “These findings of differential death rates between DPT and PV do call for further rigorous prospective population-based investigations,” the study concludes. IANS