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Hinduism: Learn about the Four Goals of the World’s Third Largest Religion!

Hinduism, or Sanatan Dharma, has 95% of its total followers living in India itself. Hinduism is more a culture than religion and works on a system of beliefs

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Hindu God Shiva. Image source: Pixabay
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Aug 27, 2016: Hinduism is widely regarded as the world’s oldest religion, standing third on the list of mass religion. Hinduism, or Sanatan Dharma, has 95% of its total followers living in India itself. Hinduism is more a culture than religion and works on a system of beliefs. The ultimate aim of this system of beliefs is to attain the four goals in life, that are:

Kama

In Hinduism, Kama stands as a synonym for desire. It is suggestive of man’s desire to please his aesthetics and sensibility, like one’s sexual desires, ambitions and passion. Getting ambitious of one’s desires is essential to bring one to the path of righteousness.

 Arth

Arth (meaning of life) is the attainment that deals with the riches of the world and wealth. One of the beginning steps is to reach a peaceful stage of economic stability and prosperity. More than monetary stability, the attitude one has toward others and how he talks to the ones below him, makes the difference.

The 'dharmachakra' of Wheel of Dharma— a common way to nirvana in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Source: Pixabay
The ‘dharmachakra’ or Wheel of Dharma— a common way to nirvana in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
Source: Pixabay
Dharma

Dharma is believed to lead one to heaven. It is an individual’s responsibility to do good deeds and indulge in meditation, selfless work, dedication to God and other sorts of ‘purushartha’ or hard work. This purushartha makes one closer to the almighty and nirvana.

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Moksha

Moksha is the achievement of nirvana through undeterred meditation and devotion, which is the highest form of purushartha. Moksha disconnects one from worldly materialism and releases the soul from sadness, pain and grief.

Here are some basic yet rare facts that are sure to clear one’s questions about Hinduism:

I. Hinduism believes in 4 eras in the circle of life— Satya yug (Often called Satyug, the age of Utopia), Tretha Yug, Dwapar Yug and Kali Yug. Kali Yug is the ugliest phase of all, a state of massive destruction and loss of innocence. It is after the Kali Yug that the cycle restarts.

An illustration of Draupadi's 'vastraharan' or disrobing. Source: Wikimedia Commons
An illustration of Draupadi’s ‘vastraharan’ or disrobing, as depicted in Mahabharata. Image Source: Wikimedia Commons

II. Mahabharata— the famous Hindu epic, is considered as the longest epic in literature, and is 10 times more than the total word length of Odyssey or Illiad. Mahabharata is said to be 1.8 million words long.

III. Indeed selflessness is a virtue, but Hinduism has no stance against one’s wish to earn wealth. The gods and goddesses of wealth and prosperity, such as Lakshmi, Vishnu and Kubera are religiously followed and worshipped. It is on the major festival of Diwali when Goddess Lakshmi is worshipped for bringing health, wealth, and propensity to her devotees.

IV. Do you know why the Rudraksha mala used for chanting and praying has 108 beads? The number 108 holds immense significance in Sanatan Dharma, because the ratio distance between the Sun and the earth, and even the moon’s diameter is 108. Thus, 108 holds an important place in this faith.

V. All Hindu Gods are pictured riding or flying on certain animals and birds. But the holiest animals in Hinduism are- cow (symbolic for Lord Krishna and Nandi— that of Lord Shiva), Elephant (for the head of Lord Ganesha), snake (wrapped around Lord Shiva; significant of calm acceptance), and peacock— the wagon of some Hindu gods.

God Krishna with Flute and cows around him. Image source: www.hindugodwallpaper.com
God Krishna with Flute and cows around him. Image source: www.hindugodwallpaper.com

VI. Rig Veda, the fundamental holy scripture of the Hindu faith was composed 3,800 years ago. It has been orally passed over since ages, and the present form of the Rig Veda has been composed out of ‘dant kathaas’ or oral folk tradition.

VII. Karma is the basic fundamental deciding factor of one’s life after death or rebirth. How good your next life would be will be decided by the good deeds you perform in this birth.

Holy river Ganges, in Varanasi. Source: Pixabay
Holy river Ganges, in Varanasi. Image Source: Pixabay

VIII. River Ganga is considered as one of the purest rivers to have ever fallen on earth. It works as a redemptive way for a man to take a dip in the holy water and wash away his sins.

IX. The Kumbh Mela is the world’s biggest and grandest religious gathering which has nearly 100 million devotees from all over the world. The Mela takes place when the planet Jupiter enters Aquarius and Sun enters Aries.


– by Chetna Karnani, at NewsGram. Twitter: @karnani_chetna

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  • Enakshi Roy Chowdhury

    hinduism has alot of aspects to look into

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Triple Talaq: Are the concerns and efforts real?

It cannot be deied that BJP is outlawing triple talaq to gain political mileage both from sections of Muslim women and from those Hindus who will see it as Modi's distress over the sufferings of Muslim women and as a message to Muslims that the days when they were given excessive leeway by less assertive governments are now gone.

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Triple Talaq continues to plague lives of Muslim women, VOA News
Triple Talaq continues to plague lives of Muslim women, VOA News
  • Triple Talaq has been seen as way of BJP gaining popularity among Muslims, and not as a real concern for the distressed women of the community.
  • BJP leaders are often accused of Anti-Muslim statements, which further proves the point.
  • However, if the law is passed, it will be a step towards empowerment of the Muslim women.

Only the naive will believe that deep concern for the welfare of Muslim “sisters” and for the maintenance of the “dignity of women” and “gender equality” persuaded the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) to introduce the bill in parliament to ban the practice of triple talaq.

For a party whose founder in its previous incarnation, Syama Prasad Mookerjee, thought that only a civil war can solve the Hindu-Muslim problem, as Tripura’s Governor, Tathagata Roy of the BJP, reminded us recently, and a BJP candidate in the Gujarat elections sought a reduction in the numbers of “topi and dadhiwalas” (sartorial allusion to Muslims), it strains credulity to believe that it has been guided solely by laudable motives to put an end to an admittedly reprehensible custom.

The belief will persist, therefore, that it is a desire to “garner votes” which is behind the decision, notwithstanding Law Minister, Ravi Shankar Prasad’s disavowal of such an intention.

Few will deny, of course, that the practice itself is highly condemnable, not least because it is illegal even in Islamic countries. For a secular country, therefore, to allow it to prevail will point to a flawed outlook whose roots lie deep in the political calculations.

It cannot be gainsaid that the BJP is outlawing triple talaq to gain political mileage both from sections of Muslim women and from those Hindus who will see the proposed law, first, as an example of “brother” Modi’s distress over the sufferings of Muslim women and, secondly, as a message to Muslims in general that the days are gone when they were given excessive leeway by less assertive governments.

The “secular” rulers of the past, on the other hand, also thought that they will gain votes by pandering to the predilections of the obscurantists among the minorities.

The worst example of this regressive attitude was the Shah Bano episode, when the Rajiv Gandhi government negated a Supreme Court verdict in favour of alimony for a divorced Muslim woman on the advice of Muslim fundamentalists.

Shayara Bano case was one of the biggest milestone cases in history of India which intensified the previously buried matter. Wikipedia Common
Shayara Bano case was one of the biggest milestone cases in history of India which intensified the previously buried matter. Wikipedia Common

The BJP’s rise from the sidelines of politics to the mainstream, can be traced through that event in the mid-1980s. The Congress will have to tread carefully in deciding on its stance on the bill which has followed the Supreme Court’s recent declaration of triple talaq as unconstitutional in a case involving the litigant, Shayara Bano.

The difficulty for the Congress is that it has given secularism a bad name by making the concept virtually synonymous with minority appeasement. While the BJP will not mind being closely associated with Hinduism, the Congress has been trying to shed the impression that it has become “mussalmanon ki party” or a party of Muslims, as the Congress leader, Ashok Gehlot, has said, ever since the 2014 defeat made him aware of this unwelcome image, as the A.K. Antony report pointed out.

The triple talaq bill gives it an opportunity to refurbish its reputation by articulating a rational position on drafting the law, aiming at protecting Muslim women from cruel and whimsical divorces and at the same time ensuring that the legislation does not lead to a police witch-hunt targeting men. Since the bill has to still pass through the Rajya Sabha, Parliament’s upper house, there is ample scope for fine-tuning it for smoothing out the rough edges, the most egregious of which is to introduce an element of criminality in a civil legal procedure.

If the Congress and other “secular” parties play a leading role in ensuring that the new law will unequivocally serve the ends of justice where no one — neither the women, nor the men, nor the children of divorced parents — will suffer, then these parties will be able to retrieve much of their lost reputation about cynical kowtowing to bigots in the Muslim community and reassure the country in general that politics can rise above partisan and opportunistic considerations.

From this standpoint, the bill provides a golden opportunity to the secular outfits even if the BJP runs away with much of the credit for introducing it.

Outside of politics, what is noteworthy is the failure of the Muslims to deal with the problem on their own. But ever since partition robbed the community of bold, educated leaders and self-confidence by inducing the minority complex of being forever under siege under the numerically superior Hindus — unlike other minorities like Sikhs and Parsis who have retained their poise and self-belief — the Muslims have come under the retrogressive influence of the mullahs with the result that they have remained stuck in the past.

Not all Muslim have the freedom to do whatever they want. They are still in the clutches of Triple Talaq.
Not all Muslim have the freedom to do whatever they want. They are still in the clutches of Triple Talaq.

Triple talaq is one manifestation of such backwardness along with polygamy and the veiling of women as they reinforce the age-old patriarchal norms. Only a small section of upper middle class women — film stars and sports personnel being prominent among them — has been able to extricate themselves from the grasp of medievalism and enter the modern world. But the majority of the poor and lower middle class women have been denied the opportunity of advancement by orthodox Muslim society. The new law offers them a ray of hope. IANS Live