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History of Hindus of Bali

About 92 percent of the population of Bali located amidst the world’s most populous Islamic nation practice Agama Hindu Dharma.

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Map of Bali
Map of Bali, Wikimedia Commons
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By Akanksha Sharma

Bali is an island and province of Indonesia. It is part of the coral triangle, the area with the highest diversity of marine species. This famous island of Indonesia is located at the westernmost end of Lesser Sunda Island. It blends spectacular mountain scenery and beautiful beaches with warm and friendly people, and also unique for its cultural tradition. About 92 percent of the population of Bali located amidst the world’s most populous Islamic nation practice Agama Hindu Dharma.

History

Hinduism which ruled Bali a millennium ago was originated from India via Java.  The Balinese version was formulated when priests and rulers from the powerful Majaphit Hindu Kingdom that ruled Java and beyond fled to Bali in the 15th century as Islam encroached.

Nowadays, Balinese Hinduism embraces the elements of Buddhism which flourished in Bali during the 8th and 9th century and animist belief that predate the introduction of Hinduism.

A procession with offerings entering a Hindu temple Bali
A procession with offerings entering a Hindu temple Bali, Wikimedia Commons

Beliefs of Balinese Hinduism

i) Balinese Hinduism differs dramatically from Indian and Nepalese Hinduism . The theological beliefs of Hindus of Bali originated from Indian philosophy while the indigenous beliefs stem from the backbone of rituals.

ii) Balinese Hinduism divides the cosmos into three layers: Highest level is Heaven or Swarga, home of gods. Next is the world of man, Buwah. Below is the Hell or Bhur, where the demons live. This tripartite division is reflected in the human body (head, body and feet) and the shrines found outside the Balinese buildings.

A Hindu shrine, or Padmasana outside a house in Bali
A Hindu shrine, or Padmasana outside a house in Bali , Wikipedia Commons

iii) The key belief of Balinese Hindus is that the elements nature are influenced by the spirit. Hence, offerings (sesajen) made from agriculture are offered to this spirit. It is believed that Mount Agung (the highest mountain on Bali) is the house of gods. Their main symbol is ‘Swasthika’, an equatorial cross with its arms bent at right angles.

Deities of Balinese Hinduism

File:Ganesha statue in Bali Safari Park, Indonesia Hindu sculpture.jpg
Ganesha statue in Bali Safari Park, Wikimedia Commons

a) Along with the Hindu gods Shiva and Brahma, Hindus of Bali worship deities which are unique to their branch of religion.
b) Sang Hang Widhi is the designation for one god in Balinese Hindus .
c) The empty chair at the top of the padmasana shrine found outside houses and temples is for Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa.
d) According to Balinese Hindu precepts, there are many manifestations of Sang Hyang Wasa Widhi in the form of gods such as Dewi Sri, the goddess of rice, and many other gods associated with mountains, lakes, and the sea.

Festivals

Galungan and Kuningan
This is one of the most important festivals of Bali. Galungan celebrates the death of a legendary tyrant called Mayadenawa. During this 10 day period, all the gods come down to earth for the festivities. The celebrations culminated with the Kuningan festival, Balinese say thanks and goodbye to Gods.

Related Article: Hinduism in Bali: Galungan and Kuningan

PenjorKuningan.jpg
Penjor lining a road in Bali, Indonesia at Galungan, Wikimedia Commons

Nyepi
Nyepi also known as the Day of silence signifies the start of Balinese Hindu New Year at the New Moon in March or April. The aim of the day before Nyepi is to cleanse Bali of demons so that the next year can start afresh. Nyepi is a day of complete silence, everyone including tourists, remain confined to their homes or hotels and special police ensures that everything is closed including the airports, ( although the hospitals and hotels stay open); that the streets are empty (except for ambulances); that no electricity or lights are being used. The day after (ngembak Nyepi) is celebrated with various rituals, including kissing and water-throwing ceremony in Denpasar, and roads become even more jam-packed than normal as people visit families, friends and temples.

A deserted street at Nyep
A deserted street at Nyepi, Wikimedia Commons

Watugunug
The very last day of Pawukon, Saturday of the 30th week , Watugunug , is a special day devoted to Goddess of learning , Saraswati. Her festival day is a time for making the offering for books, especially the sacred lontar, commonly known as palm leaves. Schools organize early morning ceremonies and student jam the big temple- Pura Jagat Natha in Denpasar for to pray for success and knowledge.

Akanksha is a student of journalism in New Delhi, currently interning with NewsGram. Twitter: @Akanksha4117

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In Pakistan, Hindus don’t get even a ‘Crematorium:’ Will you believe that?

There are a lot of Hindu family residing all over Pakistan and still, there are very few cremation grounds where their last rites can be performed in that area

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Not having a crematorium in Peshawar is just one of the woes that the minority communities are facing since long. Wikimedia Commons
Not having a crematorium in Peshawar is just one of the woes that the minority communities are facing since long. Wikimedia Commons
  • Due to the lack of cremation grounds, some Hindus and Sikhs travel hundreds of kilometres just to perform the last rites as per their religious practices
  • As per reports, there were about 12 cremation grounds before Independence
  • Unfortunately, Hindu’s and Sikh’s have to face the same problem in the neighbouring state as well, that is Afghanistan

Death is said to be a great leveller. But the tragedy struck to some section of society in Muslim-dominated Pakistan is altogether different.

Due to the lack of cremation grounds, some Hindus and Sikhs travel hundreds of kilometres just to perform the last rites as per their religious practices. People who can’t even afford to travel, they have no option but to bury the mortal remains of their near and dear ones.

As per reports, there were about 12 cremation grounds before Independence. But with the passage of time, they vanished in the thin air of the terror-torn nation. Even in areas lying in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, where about 35,000 Hindus and Sikhs live, the cremation grounds are also rare.

Also Read: Today’s Social Issues and their Answers to Children

The law of the land is non-existent for the minorities communities like Hindu’s and Sikh’s. Without taking no-objection certificate, people from these communities can’t move an inch even. The grief-stricken families have to wait for the clearances, as they are left with no other option.

People are forced to travel long distances to cremate their relatives from the areas like Swat Bannu, Kohat, Malakand etc. The cost to travel such long distances ranges from Rs 40,000 to Rs 70,000 and on the top of it, the fear of robbery during these travels cannot be ruled out. Not all the Hindu families can afford to perform the last rites in the manner they want.

Unfortunately, Hindu’s and Sikh’s have to face the same problem in the neighbouring state as well, that is Afghanistan. The minority communities are compelled to bury the dead because cremation grounds are vanishing fast in Pakistan.

Although, Pakistan boats that the minority communities enjoy equal rights in their country, the ground reality seems to be completely different. Wikimedia Commons
Although, Pakistan boats that the minority communities enjoy equal rights in their country, the ground reality seems to be completely different. Wikimedia Commons

Although, the administration of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has allowed the minorities communities to perform cremation near temples. But most of the temples are built on the agricultural lands and commercial areas, which have already been encroached upon by land mafia.

There are a lot of Hindu family residing in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and still, there are very few cremation grounds where their last rites can be performed in that area.

Although, Pakistan boats that the minority communities enjoy equal rights in their country, the ground reality seems to be completely different. Not having a crematorium in Peshawar is just one of the woes that the minority communities are facing since long.


After much of the protests, finally, the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government has started building the facility from the chief minister’s fund, as per some government sources.

There are almost 50,000 Sikhs and Hindus in Peshawar. And unfortunately, due to lack of proper facilities, people over there are also facing the same situation what others are facing in areas like Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Also Read: 7 new-age social issues in India that need a check

To expect some kind of generosity from the war-torn state like Pakistan is out of the way. Instead of spending extravagantly on the military expansion, Pakistan should come forward and full-fill the basic amenities for the citizen of its country. It’s the people who make the country and not the other way round.