The immigration officers held them as “undesirable aliens” from Asia who were likely to become burdens on the American taxpayer
The concomitant bureaucratic reasoning, the medical discourse, framing of legal processes, etc., were all harnessed to stop the Asian migration
After four years since the incident, the Department of Justice admitted that it had been wrong in detaining and deporting subjects of the British Empire
Twelve Sikhs and one Muslim from the Punjab province in British India landed at the Angel Island Immigration Station on July 29, 1913, in San Francisco Bay and were seeking entry into the United States. The group mostly of the farming profession had sailed on S.S. Persia from Manila, Philippines, then an insular territory of America. While some wished to get into the business, others dreamt of climbing the “agricultural ladder” in time.
The immigration officers held them as “undesirable aliens” from Asia who were likely to become burdens on the American taxpayer. The official reason, however, was “that they are of the laboring class, that there is no demand for such labor and there exists a strong prejudice against them in this locality. The arrival and arrest of the ‘Hindus’ made news in local dailies, because, traveling aboard the Pacific Mail Steamship Company-owned S.S. Persia, they had been part of a benchmark voyage. While the Persia was a veteran of transpacific journeys, this particular trip had seen it ferry the largest ever number of ‘steerage passengers’ from Asia.
The 13 Hindus were individually interrogated by the Immigration Inspector R.E. Peabody and were then formally arraigned, and taken into custody. But one of them, Naram Singh, was released for he either chose to self-deport or was allowed entry—which, is not known. The concomitant bureaucratic reasoning, the medical discourse, framing of legal processes, etc., were all harnessed to stop the Asian migration.
The same sequence of events played themselves out once again, on August 2, in 1913, said the report. When S.S. Korea landed at the docks, all ten ‘Hindus’ were arrested and detained at Angel Island. Out of the twenty-two, the situation was critical for seven among them—five from the first group, and two from the second, mentioned sada.org Website. They had been diagnosed with uncinariasis, or to be carrying hookworms—deemed a “dangerous, contagious disease” and a threat to public health in America. The only legitimate way to evade this was to admit oneself for treatment under quarantine and bear the expenses accrued which the concerned seven did.
Around the second week of August, the bail bonds, that were required to proceed to the mainland and remain free until their case was decided, began coming in. By the end of the month, all, except the seven afflicted with uncinariasis, had been released from detention on Angel Island under conditions put forth in their bail.
The show of support for the detainees had Commissioner Backus concerned. The telegram to the Commissioner General of Immigrations in Washington D.C., Anthony Caminetti goes like this “Voluminous evidence [have been] presented by attorneys[,]” he informed, “supported by affidavits of prospective employers showing that ‘Hindu’ labor is needed and desirable and that Hindus are not objectionable to the State [of California]. My views are opposed to this…” But the processing of deportation warrants for the twenty-two Hindus was already in motion.
On October 10, the Department of Labor ultimately issued warrants authorizing the deportation of the Hindus but the writ of habeas corpus at the U.S. District Court for the First Division of the Northern District of California stopped the motion. The hearing began and with it commenced a lengthy tussle that dragged on for nearly two years.
After the Immigration Bureau framed separate charges for each individual detainee, the court closed with the following statement: “We conclude, therefore, that the testimony adduced in the present case was sufficient in character and effect upon which to predicate the findings of the immigration officers, and such findings must be held to be final and conclusive.” The Circuit Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit then upheld the District Court’s ruling.
In 1915, a new case involving thirty-five Hindus surfaced. But they managed to secure a hearing at the Supreme Court. On February 21, 1917, a couple of weeks after the U.S. Congress passed the Asian Barred Zone Immigration Act, the following communiqué appeared in newspapers under the headline ‘US Admits Error in Excluding Manila Hindus’: “The department of justice today notified Timothy Healy…that it would file on March 6 with the Supreme Court a ‘confession of error’ in the stand taken four years ago when 22 Hindus on arrival here were ordered deported. They arrived from Manila and the U.S. officials held they had no right to enter. This latest move will end the case.” And finally after four years since the incident, the Department of Justice admitted before the apex court that it had been wrong in detaining and deporting subjects of the British Empire who entered mainland U.S. through its insular territories, and withdrew all relevant cases.
Anubhav started a company ‘Tyrelessly’, which works to dispose old and used tyres in an eco-friendly manner
He is an entrepreneur, designer, data analyst, computer programmer and a social activist
He is also the founder and CEO of software firm TechAPTO
Small changes can create big differences- is what one will say of 16 year-old Anubhav. Instead of criticizing the authorities and complaining about the population for the rising levels of pollution, this teenaager has decided to take an initiative to do something.
Anubhav, a resident of Gurgaon, has started a company, called Tyrelessly, which works to dispose old and used tyres in an eco-friendly manner. He is inviting more people to do their bit for this good cause.
It all started after Wadhwa saw someone setting a couple of tyres on fire and then he went online to learn how tyres are disposed once they have outlived their usefulness. He got to learn about a number of toxic gases released by burning tyres into the air leading to an environmental threat. In a hope to stop this practise, he started his company, tirelessly on December 15, 2015 and soon the first pilot was rolled out.
Wadhwa, a student of Pathways World School, Aravali, Haryana, and a member of the student council, when returns home from school at 5 PM, he becomes an entrepreneur, designer, data analyst, computer programmer and a social activist.
Old tyres are collected from people’s doorsteps, and then they are recycled into fuel and steel for the purpose of reuse. One just needs to visit the Tyrelessly web platform, and give the location by clicking on the ‘Tyreless’ option, after which a truck comes and picks up the old tyre. Tirelessly provides free service and gets its revenue be selling these byproducts of tyres. Apart from recycling the tyres, the team members of tirelessly also work to aware people about the risk of burning tyres.
He has not only started Tyrelessly but he is also the founder and CEO of software firm TechAPTO. He has also developed websites for several companies and was included among the youngest CEOs of India in 2013.
-prepared by Pashchiema, an intern at NewsGram. Twitter: @pashchiema
Guragon or Gurugram is a city which is young, awakening and full of opportunities. People come to the city from various parts of the country and identify themselves as Gurgaoities, even though they have been living there for only few years. And then there are those who are born and bought up in the city, which many would agree is a little odd to hear, as most of us have a little or negligible memory of Gurgaon before the year 2000. Many people and families come to the city for a work assignment, but after spending a few years, look for flats for sale in Gurgaon, because they feel attached to its metropolitan demeanour. It doesn’t matter how long you have been associated with this millennium city, but we’ll all agree that city life can be fun, adventurous and unlike any other place in India. Here are the top 5 things that make Gurgaon so special:
Started in November, 2013 Rahagiri is India’s first citizen initiative of its kind that urges people to go car-free and instead take on sustainable and active transport that promotes good health and greater participation by the city’s residents. This movement caught a lot of media attention and was fully supported by the city’s administration, actively help in organizing this weekly event that takes place every Sunday. Upon the success of Rahgiri in Gurgaon, similar initiatives were replicated in different neighbourhood across Delhi namely Connaught Place, Rohini, Dwarka etc.
Galleria Market, DLF-Phase IV
Those who have been living in Gurgaon since 2007 will agree that it was the best place to shop during that time. The residents Gurgaon, irrespective of their address would head to Galleria located at DLF-Phase IV to shop. However, today with emergence of several commercial hubs, trips to the Galleria market may have reduced, but the legacy from old days continues. For starters, it was home to the only authorized Apple resellers in Gurgaon for the longest time. You also get the best rolls at Lazeez foods and recently a number of new restaurants and coffee houses have opened up. The fountain area, which is right in the center, is an excellent place to lounge on a laid back summer evening with friends. The entire atmosphere of Galleria is extremely youthful and energetic. People living in the nearby neighbourhoods often head to Galleria in lazy outfits for a quick stroll or simply hanging out.
DLF’s Cyber Hub ranks no. 1 on 54 things to do in Gurgaon list on popular travel website, tripadvisor. A welcome break from mall culture, cyber hub changed the concept of “night out” in the city. Right next to Cyber City, India’s largest corporate shack, the place is flooded with food joint, multi-cuisine restaurants and upscale store. Since two years of its existence, it has become the favourite place amongst Gurgaonwallahas and neighbouring Delhiwallahas to fine dine & wine. Young professionals often head out for a post work hanging out session for quick drinks and dinner. It is one of the best places to unwind after work and relax with colleagues or friends. Although, the footfalls are highest during the weekends, on weekdays the place is also bustling with people, with many restaurants and brewery organizing promotional events such as ladies nights etc.
Kingdom of Dreams
As described my many, Kingdom of dreams is a get place to visit if you are looking for an evening of entertainment and leisure with friends or family. Located in the heart of the city, the place attracts many international and local visitors to give a glimpse into India’s culture, heritage, arts, craft and performing arts. If you are in Gurgaon for the first time, visiting Kingdom of Dreams will give you real value of your time and money. There are live Bollywood themed shows and theater and a number of food options, which are most traditional Indian cuisine.
Aravalli Bio-diversity Park
Located on Delhi-Gurgaon border, very close to Gurudronacharya Metro station, the Aravalli bio-diversity park is home to running and cycling tracks, amphitheater and wetlands and ponds that attracts thousands of migratory birds every year. The range has a thick preserve of indigenous fauna and flora. A number from fitness enthusiasts go there during weekends for a run or to cycle. Thanks to the clean and pristine environment, a number of residential projects are expected to come up in the adjoining area of the Aravalli range. A number of flats for sale in Gurgaon are already available, overlooking the bio-diversity park.
To sum up, Gurgaon is new city. Within a short span on two decades, it has metamorphosed into a metropolis, where people from different nationality and regional identity are living in harmony. Located at a close distance from the airport and Delhi, it is becoming the most favoured residential option for many people.