Kolkata: Central Government’s proposal to legalize prostitution resulted in a controversy in the state. People can be seen debating on whether or not legalizing prostitution will lead to an imbalance in the society.
The sex workers living in one of the largest red light areas of India, Sonagachi disagree with the common perception. They believe that if the government withdraws the ITPA (Illegal Trafficking Prevention Act) and legalizes prostitution, then it will save thousands of sex workers from the harassment of police and local pimps.
To know the real reason behind their demand of legalizing prostitution, NewsGram talked to some members of Durbar. They answered unanimously that they are labourers and they are working to sustain themselves, and this is reason enough for the government to either withdraw or amend the ITPA act.
Arnab Mitra: The government is planning to legalize prostitution. How will it benefit you if it is implemented?
Sephali Roy: We have five basic demands:
a. Basic Labour Righta.
b. Right to Governmental Health Scheme.
c. Pension to all sex workers.
d. Withdraw or amend the ITPA act.
e. Our children should have the right to the property of their mother, and the identity of their mother should be granted as their identity.
These necessary demands can only be fulfilled if the government legalizes prostitution.
Arnab Mitra: Do you think that the Government needs to withdraw the ITPA act immediately?
Purnima Chatterjee: At present, there is hardly any instance of trafficking in this red light area. So we are not doing any illegal business, and whatever we do is only to meet our basic needs. It is our request to the government to stop seeing us as criminals. We are humans too.
Arnab Mitra: Do you think that rape and molestation will be curbed if the government legalizes prostitution?
Chaya De: The instances of rapes only highlight the mental sickness of the society. It was there in the past and will be in the future. Nothing can curb the demons of the society.
Arnab Mitra: What steps have you taken from Durbar’s side to raise this issue?
Gita Das: In 2006, we first started our movement to demand basic labour rights. Now MPs from different parties have come forward to support our cause and we are hopeful that the Modi government will implement the act to legalize prostitution as soon as possible. We have high hopes with the ruling government as the power rests with them for now.
May Khine Oo was trafficked to China, where she was forced to get married twice
She wishes to share her story of human trafficking in a hope to protect other women
The International Rescue Committee charity gives her a small daily stipend for living expenses, and a village clinic is providing free checkups for her pregnancy.
Myanmar, August 24, 2017: The nightmare for May Khine Oo started on a trip home to Myanmar but lasted almost 13 years.
After visiting her grandmother in southern Mon state in the country’s southeast, May Khine Oo, 17 at the time, boarded a train for the state capital, Mawlamyine, to return to her parents in Mudon township.
On the train she met a couple who offered her a job, which she refused. She did, however, accept their offer of water, and next thing she knew she had fallen asleep and missed her stop, with no money to get back.
The couple suggested they could find her work to raise the funds needed to pay for a new ticket.
“I decided to accept their job for travel expenses to return home,” May Khine Oo told Myanmar Now, an independent website supported by the Thomson Reuters Foundation, adding that she now thinks the water had been drugged.
The couple took her to a local restaurant where she worked for three months, but instead of taking her back to her parents as promised, they then took her to a broker and she was sent to China.
May Khine Oo said over the next 13 years she was forced to marry twice. She had two children with her first husband and was pregnant from her second marriage when she fled after contacting a student group through the Chinese messaging service WeChat.
“I tried to flee many times, for many years,” she said. “But the foreignness of the communities made it difficult to do so and I was also afraid that my situation would get much worse elsewhere.”
While May Khine Oo’s ordeal is not uncommon, what is unusual is her determination to go public with her story to stop other young girls from falling into the same trap.
Forced to marry
The United Nations has described Myanmar as a source country for human trafficking. Police statistics show that 3,489 victims were rescued from 2006 to 2016, most of whom had been trafficked into marriages.
Prostitution accounted for the second-highest number of cases, followed by forced labor.
Police records show the top destination for trafficking victims from Myanmar is China, although the trade also exists in other countries in Southeast Asia, such as Thailand and Malaysia, and within Myanmar itself.
Myanmar was upgraded in June in the U.S. State Department’s Trafficking in Persons report to its Tier 2 watch list, which indicated that the country was making significant efforts to comply with U.S. standards to combat human trafficking.
Human rights groups, however, called the move premature, saying not enough was being done to stop this illegal trade.
“Preventive measures against trafficking in persons must be carried out systematically,” he said. “This crime is also happening in this country. But only serious cases are known to the public.”
Myanmar’s government passed a landmark Anti-Trafficking Law in 2005, which laid out hefty sentences for offenders. Cases that proceed to court are rare but have happened.
Myo Aung, permanent secretary at the Ministry of Labor, Immigration and Population, said one challenge is providing a strong alternative to the lucrative offers made by brokers.
“Potential victims do not heed education programs about trafficking,” he said. “Instead, they believe the enticements of illegal traffickers. As a result they cannot find help after becoming victims.”
On the local level, the fight is often about raising awareness.
Police Major Khin Maung Latt of Yangon’s Pazundaung township recommends a more aggressive approach to the information battle.
He said his officers cooperate with nongovernmental organizations to disseminate pamphlets, using a “door-to-door system.”
“It is more effective than formal educative talks,” he said, adding that residents should inform police if they are approached by brokers. “It is a preventive measure against liars. Prevention is better than the cure.”
After her case was reported, May Khine Oo was found by Chinese authorities and handed over to the Myanmar Police Force’s Anti-Trafficking unit in Ruili in China’s Yunnan province.
She moved back to her parents in Mudon, leaving her two children in China, and started to rebuild her life, receiving a grant from the Social Welfare Department to set up a grocery store.
The International Rescue Committee charity gives her a small daily stipend for living expenses, and a village clinic is providing free checkups for her pregnancy.
She has also filed a complaint with the police in the hope that they can find the couple who duped her on the train, and is spreading her own story locally as a cautionary tale.
“I would like to suggest to all parents not to allow their children to travel without close adult family members,” she said. “Using my experience as an example, I tell the girls not to blindly trust others.” (VOA)
Martinsicuro, Abruzzo, Italy, August 9, 2017: The thick-set 23-year-old Nigerian woman exudes strength, keen to overcome what she suffered in Libya and Italy before she escaped from the shadows in Rome and jumped on a train heading for Ancona on Italy’s Adriatic coast.
Not that she knew the train’s destination before boarding — she just wanted to flee her tormentors, run from beatings and sexual abuse. But it will take longer than a three-and-half-hour railway trip to forget the torments of the past.
Anna (the name she chose to protect her identity for security reasons) is one of more than 16,000 young Nigerian women — including many underage girls — who’ve been trafficked into Italy by Nigerian crime syndicates over the past two years, joining thousands of Nigerians who now make up nearly half of the street prostitutes working in Italy.
Many outreach workers suspect that most of the Nigerian girls, especially the more recent arrivals — although not all — knew before leaving Nigeria that their traffickers would put them to work as prostitutes. Many may have been sex workers before in Nigeria, something charity workers say shouldn’t matter when it comes to helping the women, arguing they are all abused and in need of compassion and help.
Either way, the trafficked women, they say, didn’t know how grueling their work would be in Italy, how appalling their living conditions, how poorly paid they would be and how long it would take them to pay off debts to traffickers, who charge the women upwards of $41,000 (35,000 euros) for the journey.
But staff at On the Road, an Italian charity that helps women break from sex work, say they don’t believe Anna was one of those who knew what she would be doing in Italy. They say she was duped.
Eight months after her escape from her “madame” Anna described her journey north from Nigeria’s Benin City through Niger and Libya. She is now living with nearly a dozen trafficked Nigerian girls in a shelter, going to school and learning Italian.
Anna said she was raped repeatedly for almost two months just outside the Libyan town of Bani Walid. There she witnessed young migrant women and boys shot because they resisted the sexual demands of their Libyan captors.
She said she couldn’t give a precise number of those murdered but added, sadly, “Too many, too many.”
She made the journey to Italy because her uncle told her to go. After her parents died when she was 14-years-old, she and her three siblings — a brother and two sisters — lived with their uncle.
“He was not really taking care of us in the way he should. He is a drunkard and had no job. So we could barely afford a square meal a day. He always say we should leave his house,” she explained.
She did go to high school and was learning how to sew before she set off for Italy.
“One day my uncle came and said there was a woman who had a business here in Italy that needed someone to work with her. So he said I would go with the woman and work with her in Italy. So I had no choice.”
She never met the mysterious business woman, who she was told owned a supermarket, but did meet a woman who claimed to be the woman’s sister, who told Anna she would owe more than $47,000 (40,000 euros) for the journey and would have to pay it off.
Juju oath for debt repayment
Like thousands of other Nigerian women trafficked to Italy via Libya by Nigerian crime syndicates, she was taken to a voodoo priest to swear a juju oath to repay the debt.
After what she said was a rough journey through Niger, she and a group of Nigerian migrants arrived in Libya’s southern desert town of Sabha, spent a few weeks there before going to Bani Walid.
“When we got there, they put us in a compound guarded by many armed Arabs with many kinds of guns.” She recalled the scene with a shiver. “We don’t have anything to eat. You couldn’t escape. The place was secure.”
According to Anna, the compound was full of women, at least two hundred.
“They said we are going to Tripoli and they took us to a place that wasn’t far from the place where we were before and so I said to myself, ‘Tripoli is close to Bani Walid.’”
In fact, it wasn’t Tripoli and was only 10 minutes outside Bani Walid. They arrived at night and she was kept indoors for almost two harrowing, terrifying months.
“They slept with us, mistreated us, beat us, and shot people,” she said. “They killed many people — girls and boys, who refused to sleep with them. The people who refused to do what they asked, they killed them and threw them out of the place.”
Asked if she was raped, she responded: “I slept with several men, several times.”
A smuggling chain
Let week, Amnesty International warned that “facilitating the interception and return of refugees and migrants to Libya results in their arbitrary detention in centers where they are at almost certain risk of being tortured, raped and even killed.”
Last year, Human Rights Watch interviewed 47 newly arrived migrants in Sicily who described severe abuses in Libya by government officials, smugglers and members of militias and criminal gangs.
With more women arriving, Anna’s captors moved her and her group along the smuggling chain. The smugglers’ inflatable boat, which Africans nickname balloon boats, capsized in the Mediterranean Sea. Several migrants drowned before an Italian coast guard rescued the survivors, including Anna.
In Italy, she was moved from a reception center in Calabria to another in Torino, where she contacted the business woman’s sister In Nigeria and was told a man would come and collect her.
The man, a Nigerian, took her to a house in Rome, where a woman beat her when she refused to prostitute herself. She was warned of the voodoo consequences of breaking her oath to repay the debt. “Juju works,” she said. “It is our tradition.”
For a month she did as she was told, sleeping with men in a house overseen by an older Nigerian woman, who would receive the money from Anna’s clients. But even juju couldn’t keep her doing the work. At Ancona railway station, an Italian man spotted her, and drove her to the Catholic charity Caritas, which passed her to On the Road.
“What has happened, has happened,” she said. Now she wants to get on with her life. She said the traffickers are “giving my family problems, my siblings” and are threatening them.
“I can’t go back to Nigeria,” she said. “I hope I have a good life in my future.” (VOA)
China, May 29, 2017: Lao high school girls are being lured into China with promises of rich husbands only to find they have been sold to a brothel or forced into street prostitution, RFA’s Lao Service has learned.
Chinese involvement in sex trafficking is a new wrinkle for Laos, as Thailand has been the most common destination for young women or girls forced into prostitution.
“This is a new trend,” said an official with an anti-trafficking nongovernmental organization (NGO), who requested anonymity because members of the group are not allowed to talk to the media.
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“Girls are lured to China to get married,” the official said. “It’s a form of human trafficking.”
The victims are not just confined to northern Laos, where the land-locked nation borders China.
“They come from all over the country, the South, the center and Vientiane,” the official said. “The government is now very worried about this.”
Chinese men typically come to villages looking for poor high school girls who think that all Chinese are rich. They believe they are going to China or another part of Laos where they will get married, but more often than not they are forced into prostitution.
“These are grade 11-12 students whose families are poor,” a Xieng Ngeun resident told RFA. “They drop out of school to get married to Chinese men.”
In Xayaburi province’s Pak Lai district, one girl sent a message to her parents two months ago saying she was forced to provide sex service at a brothel. When she resisted, she was detained and physically attacked, a Pak Lai resident told RFA.
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The Lao people who spoke to RFA did so on condition of anonymity for fear of retaliation in a country where media is tightly controlled.
The Pak Lai district girl, who had finished high school, met a Chinese man who had come to her village, the resident said. The man told her he loved her and then made arrangements with a middle man, the resident added.
‘He sold her to a brothel’
Not long after they were engaged, the man took her to China where she disappeared, except for an occasional online message.
“She was detained for three or four days. Her husband was not truthful,” the Pak Lai resident told RFA. “He sold her to a brothel.”
It’s a story that’s repeated again and again inside Laos, but it is next to impossible to determine with any accuracy how many times it happens.
“It’s unknown,” the NGO official said. “We don’t have any information about the number because there has been no survey on this.”
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While human trafficking, particularly for sex, is an illegal activity, making it difficult to track, the uptick in sex trafficking to China has been recognized by the U.S. State Department.
“A small, possibly increasing, number of women and girls from Laos are sold as brides in China and subjected to sex trafficking,” the State Department said in its 2016 Trafficking in Persons Report.
The State Department kept Laos on its Tier 2 Watch List, but the country barely escaped being named a Tier 3 country—the department’s lowest ranking.
“The government did not demonstrate overall increasing anti-trafficking efforts compared to the previous reporting period; therefore, Laos is placed on Tier 2 Watch List for a third consecutive year,” the report said.
“Per the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, Laos was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has devoted sufficient resources to a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute significant efforts to meet the minimum standards,” the State Department wrote.
Laos’ efforts to combat sex trafficking have not translated into a way out for impoverished Lao teenage girls.
Never brides, but unwed mothers
“Many people in the villages believe Chinese men are rich,” one villager told RFA.
In her village at least eight girls have gone to China. One girl who left for China three months ago has never contacted her worried parents.
“Many, many Chinese men come to our village looking for brides,” the villager said. “Some of the girls come back to the village, and a few of them come with one or two babies, but without their Chinese husbands.”
Laos and China signed an anti-human trafficking cooperation memorandum of understanding in 2014, and the countries have drafted an action plan to combat human trafficking, but local officials have done little to help and may in fact be part of the problem.
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“In the past police officers would come to our village ask us if our daughters have been lured to China, but now there is no police presence,” the villager told RFA.
According to the State Department’s report, government officials sometimes stand in the way.
“Civil society organizations with trafficking expertise report a lack of transparency from the government. At times, authorities may have impeded the work of NGOs by requiring prior government approval of all anti-trafficking activities,” the State Department found.
“Some local officials may contribute to trafficking by accepting payments to facilitate the immigration or transportation of girls to Thailand,” it added.
While the State Department singled out Thailand, it is likely that local Lao officials are also doing the same with regard to China.
Bribes, kickbacks, document forgery, and fraud have become a part of life in Laos, which Transparency International ranks as the 139th most corrupt out of 168 nations.
Although the girls who left Laos were looking for love, or at least a husband, the girls who have returned to their country say have had enough of China.
“These girls say they don’t want to go back to China,” said the villager.(RFA)