Monday March 19, 2018

SC rejects PIL seeking translation of judgments into regional languages


New Delhi: The Supreme Court on Monday refused to entertain a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) that sought direction to make the court judgments available in Hindi and other regional languages mentioned in the Schedule VIII of the Constitution.

The PIL was filed by advocate Suhaas R Joshi, who urged SC to give directions to the Registrar General of the Supreme Court to develop mechanisms to translate court judgments into various regional languages.

Joshi had submitted in his petition that non-availability of authentic translations of court judgments was causing immense difficulties for the common people who do not understand English.

The petition stated: “The absence of authoritative translations of the judgments of this Hon’ble Court puts a litigant and his counsel, not learned in English, at a great disadvantage in understanding and obtaining judgments for reliance in a court where proceedings are otherwise conducted in vernacular language/s.

Highlighting how weaker sections of society were exposed to exploitation due to non-availability of judgments in vernacular languages, the petition stated: “The non-availability of the authoritative translations of the judgments of this Hon’ble Court to a litigant or his counsel sets in a situation in the local courts where the weaker parties become vulnerable to manipulation and pressure by the local people with greater wealth, education, and connections, thereby creating asymmetrical power relations.”

However, the plea was rejected by the three-judge bench comprising Chief Justice T S Thakur, Justice A K Sikri, and Justice R Banumathi.

The bench said: We cannot pass such direction as the court language is English.

But, this is not the first time such a plea has been rejected. In January, the government had submitted an affidavit in the Supreme Court rejecting the proposal to amend the Constitution and make Hindi the official language in the apex court and the high courts.

The government’s affidavit was in response to a PIL filed by a lawyer, Shiv Sagar Tiwari, who had contended that the use of English as an official language in higher judiciary was a ‘legacy of the British rule’ and hence should be scrapped.

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Microsoft AI translates Chinese to English like humans

The researchers taught the system to repeat the process of translating the same sentence over and over

Microsoft to pay $250,000 to help them catch chip bugs. Wikimedia Commons
Microsoft to pay $250,000 to help them catch chip bugs. Wikimedia Commons
  • Microsoft creates a new kind of AI
  • This can translate Chinese to English just like humans
  • The translator makes little mistakes

A team of Microsoft researchers, including one of Indian-origin, has created an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-powered machine system that can translate sentences of news articles from Chinese to English with the same quality and accuracy as humans.

Researchers from the company’s Asia and US labs said their system achieved human parity on a commonly-used test set of news stories — called “newstest2017” — that was released at a conference recently, a blog post said late on Wednesday.

Microsoft acquired the start-up PlayFab. Pixabay
This Ai can expertly translate Chinese into English. Pixabay

According to Arul Menezes, an IIT-Bombay alumni and Partner Research Manager of Microsoft’s machine translation team, the team set out to prove that its systems could perform about as well as a person when it used a language pair — like Chinese to English — for which there is a lot of data.

“Given the best-case situation as far as data and availability of resources goes, we wanted to find out if we could actually match the performance of a professional human translator,” said Menezes.

To ensure the results were both accurate and at par with what people would have done, the team hired external bilingual human evaluators who compared Microsoft’s results to two independently produced human reference translations.

“Hitting human parity in a machine translation task is a dream that all of us have had. We just did not realise we would be able to hit it so soon,” said Xuedong Huang, Technical Fellow in charge of Microsoft’s speech, natural language and machine translation efforts.

Also Read: Microsoft Teams to have Cortana integration, other features

To reach the human parity milestone on this dataset, three research teams in Microsoft’s Beijing and Redmond, Washington, research labs worked together to make the system more accurate.

“Much of our research is really inspired by how we humans do things,” said Tie-Yan Liu, Principal Research Manager with Microsoft Research Asia in Beijing.

The team used dual-learning method. Every time they sent a sentence through the system to be translated from Chinese to English, the research team also translated it back from English to Chinese.

Microsoft Kaizala
The accuracy rate is high too. Wikimedia

That’s similar to what people might do to make sure that their automated translations were accurate, and it allowed the system to refine and learn from its own mistakes. Dual learning, which was developed by the Microsoft research team, can also be used to improve results in other AI tasks.

Another method, called deliberation networks, is similar to how people edit and revise their own writing by going through it again and again. The researchers taught the system to repeat the process of translating the same sentence over and over, gradually refining and improving the response, Microsoft said. IANS

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