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Violence Against Women Act: Pakistan

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By Megha Sharma

Mohammed Hanif, a Pakistani author and journalist, has recently discussed the law passed to preserve women’s rights. The law, preventing violence against women, has been authorized and declares a total dismissal of domestic abuse against women. Further, the law will institute legal proceedings on the culprit and even ask to wear a GPS-monitored bracelet. The offender will also be prohibited to buy guns or other harmful weapons. They focus on initiating a women’s hotline to report such an act immediately. It comes across as another step towards women empowerment.

shariya, the religious text of Muslims
shariya, the religious text of Muslims

However, this isn’t a consensual act as a major population stands in opposition of it. From religious groups to the old men, all are suggestive of a unanimous denial of this law as the patriarchal society has long observed the men in the house as power structures. Women have seen a longish submission to all these superstructures and have undergone not only mental but a physical passivity too. The religious text shariah is said to observe the act of domestic violence as acceptable in the name of masculine power.

Where on one hand there is a wide open space for women, full of opportunities, on the other one sees this refutation of exercising their rights. The repercussions of such a law are street protest and a story of it being against the culture.

a picture of Malala
a picture of Malala

The world has seen how the Muslim Pakistani girl, Malala Yousafzai, fought against the terrorists and showed the cosmos the power of a young girl. She became a representative of many other females who wanted to conquer the world but were hopeless.

Women today, are not only feminists, but they assert their individuality. From coming out of working on high posts with meagre wages, they have now understood how they can’t be engendered. A UN survey also suggested how women can work 4 times more than men.

Hanif also argues how there are several feminist men as well. They let their sisters go out, they respect their wives and believe in an egalitarian society. However, it seems these men are the most hurt with the GPS monitoring as hanif reports them saying: “See, I have never stopped my sister from going to school, never given my girlfriend a black eye. That makes me a feminist, right? But we must protect our families. You don’t want a family-loving feminist man going around with a GPS tracker, do you?”

Women who today are not afraid of making them known to the world, who respect the culture but want to transcend the social boundaries, are too scared of what happens to them in their private sphere. It is thus a major drawback of this law that it isn’t supported by its citizens.

(Megha is a student at the University of Delhi. She is pursuing her masters in English and has done her studies in German Language.) GMAIL- loveme2010.ms@gmail.com

follow me @ https://twitter.com/meghash06510344

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  • Archita aggarwal

    A good start….we are with you.

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The Tale Of Dying Dreams In The Name Of Tradition

Tony Mwebia of the Men End FGM campaign said visits to primary schools show that even as early as age 10, there are far fewer girls than boys.

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FGm
Maasai girls and a man watch a video on a mobile phone prior to the start of a social event advocating against harmful practices such as female genital mutilation at the Imbirikani Girls High School in Imbirikani, Kenya. VOA

It was during her first year of high school in rural western Kenya that Mary Kuket says she was “sacrificed to tradition” and her dreams of becoming a doctor shattered forever.

With no explanation, the 15-year-old was given away to another family, who forced her to undergo female genital mutilation (FGM), then married her off to their middle-aged son.

“I kept asking my parents why I was being taken and begged them not to send me away, but my father pushed me away, saying that soon I would understand,” Kuket, now 46, told the Thomson Reuters Foundation by phone from Baringo county. “They never told me I was going to be cut. They never told me I was going to be married to a 45-year-old man. They never told me that I would not go back to school.”

From the fear of being ostracized or killed to the prestige associated with entering womanhood, girls in Kenya are under a barrage of societal pressures to undergo FGM, often with a devastating impact on their education, say campaigners.

Female Genital Mutilation, FGM
A badge reads “The power of labor against FGM” is seen on a volunteer during a conference on International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Cairo, Egypt,(VOA)

A study by the charity ActionAid Kenya published Monday said despite the fact that FGM is illegal in the east African nation, deep-rooted myths supporting the ancient ritual persist.

Violence ‘normalized’

The survey, based on interviews with almost 400 girls and women in eight Kenyan counties, found that FGM affected not only their health but also their schooling.

“Despite efforts to curb FGM, this type of violence against women and girls is so normalized in some communities. Girls are socialized into believing they must undergo the procedure,” said Agnes Kola, women’s rights coordinator for ActionAid Kenya. “But it is stifling their ability to participate in society, as once they undergo FGM, their schooling is impacted and many never complete their education and progress in life.”

Girls missed school to recover after the procedure and suffered medical complications and trauma that affected their class attendance and performance, the report said.

Female Genital Mutilation, FGM
Students arrive at the start of a social event advocating against harmful practices such as female genital mutilation at the Imbirikani Girls High School in Imbirikani, Kenya. VOA

Seen as a rite of passage in many communities, FGM also acted as a trigger for girls as young as 11 to become sexually active and married off as they were perceived as women — often ending with child pregnancy.

As a result, fewer girls than boys in Kenya’s FGM-prevalent counties were finishing their primary education, and even fewer were transitioning to high school, the study said.

While national figures show secondary enrollment of boys and girls in year one to be almost equal, in some FGM-prevalent counties, enrollment of girls in the same group is less than half that of boys, according to government data.

‘Ticket for marriage’

An estimated 200 million girls and women worldwide have undergone FGM, which usually involves the partial or total removal of the genitalia, the United Nations says.

FGM
Girls sit in the yard at Kalas Girls Primary School, Amudat District, Karamoja, Uganda, Jan. 31, 2018. They each escaped home after their families tried to force them to undergo FGM or to enter into marriage. VOA

Despite being internationally condemned, it is practiced in at least 27 African countries and parts of Asia and the Middle East, and is usually carried out by traditional cutters, often with unsterilized blades or knives.

In some cases, girls can bleed to death or die from infections. FGM can also cause lifelong painful conditions such as fistula as well as fatal childbirth complications.

Kenya outlawed the practice in 2011, but it continues as communities believe it is necessary for social acceptance and increasing their daughters’ marriage prospects.

One in five females aged 15 to 49 in Kenya has undergone FGM, according to U.N. data.

The study in eight counties found fear of being rejected for marriage, ostracized by the community or even killed was pushing girls to undergo FGM.

In the eastern county of Garissa, Muslim communities were cited as saying anyone who was not circumcised was not permitted to worship and could easily be killed.

FGM
Amran Mahamood used to circumcise young girls in Hargeysa, Somalia, but stopped after a religious leader convinced her the rite was not required by Islamic law. VOA

“Religiously, we are told that circumcision makes girls to be clean before God, and it is only after undergoing this practice that the girls can be allowed to read the Quran or to worship,” said a woman from Garissa, cited in the report.

Elsewhere, girls and women said they were expected to undergo FGM to comply with cultural expectations of marriage.

“FGM is considered as the community-given ticket for marriage, thus it results in automatic suitors or bidders, which is absolutely the parent’s choice,” said the report. “Young men will ensure their wives get circumcised at the time of marriage.”

Progress hindered

Soon after being cut, the girls, who are drawn from communities in which up to 98 percent of women and girls have undergone FGM, said they struggled to continue with school.

They were absent for weeks to heal and also suffered infections and trauma, according to the report.

Female Genital Mutilation, FGM
 A Masaai villager displays the traditional blade used to circumcise young girls August 12, 2007 in Kameli, Kenya. Maasai are a pastoral group mostly clustered in the Rift Valley. They practice circumcision on both boys and girls during puberty years as a rite of passage to adulthood. 

The practice also provides social sanction for girls to be married off or have sex, often resulting in pregnancy.

Tony Mwebia of the Men End FGM campaign said visits to primary schools show that even as early as age 10, there are far fewer girls than boys. “Sometimes it’s just one or two girls compared to a whole lot of boys,” he said.

Campaigners said government and civil society had neglected remote, insecure regions where FGM was most prevalent. They called for specific budgets to be allocated to these areas, using positive messaging to engage with communities, and for better coordination between charities.

For Kuket, however, all is not lost.

After 20 years of marriage and seven children, she went back to school, finished her secondary education and has enrolled to work toward a degree in community development.

Also Read: ‘The Restorers’: Kenyan Girls Use Technology to Combat Female Genital Mutilation

She is also a prominent human rights activist in her community in western Tangulbei, where she rescues girls who are being forced to undergo FGM and pushed into child marriage.

“I don’t want any other girl to go through what I did,” she said. “FGM is a barrier to a girl’s progress in life — it ruins their lives.” (VOA)