Thursday November 22, 2018

10 Facts about Vedic India map that you probably didn’t know

The Iron Age of India

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Map of Vedic India. Wikimedia commons
Map of Vedic India. Wikimedia commons
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Also known as the ‘heroic age’, Vedic Age was the one which laid down the basic foundations of Indian civilization.

A period between 1500 BCE to 500 BCE, this is when early Hinduism emerged and so did the caste system. Here are 10 facts you probably didn’t know about the Vedic India map.

1. The kingdoms in the Vedic India map are same as those of the epic Mahabharata.

The Pandavas were from Kuru kingdom, whereas Draupadi was from Panchala. The antagonist of the Epic, Shakuni, was from the kingdom of Gandhar.

2. This was the time when the Vedas were composed.

The Rigveda, Mantra texts, Samhita texts, and important Brahmana literature were composed around this time.

3. A Vedic map is a transformed version of India after the Indus Valley Civilization.

Most of Indus Valley Civilization was situated in present-day Pakistan. However, the next civilization which came i.e. Vedic civilization was situated around the Gangetic plains.

Mahaveer Swami was part of post-vedic movements against orthodoxy. Pexels
Mahaveer Swami was part of post-Vedic movements against orthodoxy. Pexels

4. The Himalayas, then, were known as Himavani.

The Himalayas have played a major role in India since forever, same was with Vedic India. However, they were known as Himavani then.

5. Vedic India wasn’t a country with ‘specific boundaries’.

Not until 1947 did India had it’s clearly defined borders. It all was based on which ruler is in power.

6. The later Vedic period was the ‘Iron Age’ of India.

Under the rule of King Parikshit, the realm turned towards the Iron Age. Parikshit was the grandson of Arjuna, the protagonist of Mahabharata.

7. Caste system was not based on birth, but capability.

Unlike, the medieval caste system, ancient India caste system at the time when it was originated wasn’t based on birth. It was based on the capability of a person.

The Vedas were composed in Vedic period. Wikimedia commons
The Vedas were composed in the Vedic period. Wikimedia Commons

8. The Kingdoms on the western side of the map are Harappan archaeological sites.

Gandhar, Madra, Sindhu etc, in present-day Pakistan, are archaeological sites where Harappan artifacts have been excavated.

9.  The end of the Vedic period saw the rise of the Mahajanapada’s.

Mahajanapada and Shramana were movements which challenged Vedic orthodoxy.

10. Some say Vedic India was the result of migration of Indo-Aryans.

Since Indo-Aryans were the ones who composed the Vedas.

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Neanderthals And Sapiens Both Faced Risks

But the new study is not the final word on Neanderthal trauma

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Neanderthal
A 3D-printed model of a Neanderthal man stands at the stand of FIT AG during a media presentation at the international fairs FabCon 3.D and Rapid.Tech, Germany. VOA

Life as a Neanderthal was no picnic, but a new analysis says it was no more dangerous than what our own species faced in ancient times.

That challenges what the authors call the prevailing view of our evolutionary cousins, that they lived risky, stressful lives. Some studies have suggested they had high injury rates, which have been blamed on things like social violence, attacks by carnivores, a hunting style that required getting close to large prey, and the hazards of extensive travel in environments full of snow and ice.

While it’s true that their lives were probably riskier than those of people in today’s industrial societies, the vastly different living conditions of those two groups mean comparing them isn’t really appropriate, said Katerina Harvati of the University of Tuebingen in Germany.

Neanderthal model
Neanderthal model. Reconstruction of a Neanderthal (Homo neanderthalensis) based on the La Chapelle-aux-Saints fossils. Neanderthals inhabited Europe and western Asia between 230,000 and 29,000 years ago. They did not use complex tools but had mastery of fire and built shelters. It is thought that they had language and a complex social structure, living in small family groups and hunting for food. It is not known why Neanderthals became extinct, but one theory is that they were outcompeted by modern humans (Homo sapiens). Reconstruction by Elisabeth Daynes of the Daynes Studio, Paris, France.

A better question is whether Neanderthals faced more danger than our species did when we shared similar environments and comparable lifestyles of mobile hunter-gatherers, she and study co-authors say in a paper released Wednesday by the journal Nature.

To study that, they focused on skull injuries. They reviewed prior studies of fossils from western Eurasia that ranged from about 80,000 to 20,000 years old. In all they assessed data on 295 skull samples from 114 individual Neanderthals, and 541 skull samples from 90 individuals of our own species, Homo sapiens.

Injury rates turned out to be about the same in both species.

Also Read: Neanderthal Genes Helped Early Humans Beings to Fight Flu, Hepatits

That questions the idea that the behavior of Neanderthals created particularly high levels of danger, Marta Mirazon Lahr of Cambridge University wrote in an accompanying commentary.

But the new study is not the final word on Neanderthal trauma, she wrote. It didn’t include injuries other than to the skull. And scientists still have plenty of work to do in seeking the likely cause of injuries and evidence of care for the injured, which could give insights into the behavior of both Neanderthals and ancient members of our species, she wrote. (VOA)