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Being the daughter of King Himavat (King of Mountains/Himalaya), her name became Parvati signifying ‘daughter of the mountain’. Mostly seen as a mindful and delicate form of mother, she is the goddess of fertility, love, marriage, and adherence with divine quality and supremacy.
Expressed in numerous roles, forms, moods, epithets, and characteristics, Goddess Parvati, and every one of her forms are worshipped as an individual goddess. There are over 100 names given to her concerning her roles in Hindu stories. Regardless of that, as a goddess Lalita or Lalita Maha Tripura Sundari (one of the 10 Mahavidyas), Parvati contains her 1000 different names, which is recorded in Lalita Sahasranama (text from Brahmanda Purana). Goddess speaks to the wide scope of what women can accomplish for society and her family.
Parvati and Lord Shiva are companions and Parvati is the mother of Hindu Gods, Ganesha, Kumar/Kartikeya, and Ashokasundari. Puranas additionally show her as a sister of Lord Vishnu. In Shaivism, worshipping Shiva without goddess Parvati is viewed as a pointless go about as Parvati is the divine energy of Shiva and vice versa. Without Shiva, there is no Shakti and without Shakti, there is no Shiva as per an article on VedicFeed.
Parvati alongside Goddess Lakshmi and Goddess Saraswati is the group of three known as Tridevi which is the feminine adaptation of Trimurti (triad exemplified by Lord Shiva, Vishnu, and Brahma).
Other than the incomprehensible power and stories identified with the goddess, here are a couple of facts about the goddess Parvati:
Adi Parashakti – Mother of Universe
Goddess Parvati is also called Adi Parashakti (First Supreme Energy). Adi Parashakti is depicted in Puranas (Kalika Purana, Brahmanda Purana, Devi Bhagavata Purana, and Shiva Purana) as a mother, whose energy is liable for the creation, safeguarding, and decimation of the universe. Divine Parashakti made the trinity of divine beings (Brahma, Vishnu, and Maheshwar/Shiva). It is said that Shiva got his achievement subsequent to worshipping and meditating Adi Parashakti for a great many years utilizing the Beeja mantra. She is viewed as the supreme soul past any structure, yet can take any attractive structures.
Dasa Mahavidya (Ten Mahavidya)
The ten enormous forms of Divine mother goddess are known as Das Mahavidya. Dasa Mahavidyas are wisdom goddesses, where “Dasa” signifies ‘Ten’, Maha signifies ‘Great’ and Vidya signifies ‘Wisdom’. Each form has her own name, story, character, and mantras, and they are Kali, Tara, Maha Tripura Sundari, Bhuwaneshwari, Bhairabi, Chinnamasta, Dhumavati, Banglamukhi, Matangi and Kamala. This Mahavidya type of goddess Parvati is viewed as the one to control and work all the nine planets and keep everything under control.
Parvati as Sati or Dakshyani
Parvati is the rebirth of Devi Sati or Dakshyani, daughter of Daksha, who wedded Lord Shiva, conflicting with her dad’s choice. During an extraordinary yajna performed by Daksha, Sati and Lord Shiva were offended, and the angered Sati took her original form of Adi Parashakti, cursed Daksha, and took her life by consuming the fire of yagna. After the demise of Sati, miserable and discouraged Shiva vowed to never wed again and live segregated from the worldly pleasures. Nonetheless, to get the Lord again from his ascetic disconnection, gods persuaded the goddess to accept resurrection as Parvati.
Ardhanarishwara is the combined form of Shiv Parvati, depicted as a single body – right half is of Shiva and another half is of Parvati. Parashakti created Shiva out of herself to balance both the feminine and masculine energies. When Adi Parashakti devolved her power as a Parvati and became the consort of Shiva, it was important to show the whole world that Shiva and Parvati are a single entity, there are both father and mother, both ascetic and worldling both fearsome and gentle and both constructive and destructive, by showing their Ardanarishvara form.
Maa Tara: Goddess who saved Shiva from Halahala poison
Goddess Tara is the second of the Dasa Mahavidyas. She is supposed to be the person who made first seed, from which Lord Vishnu took birth as expressed in Shakti Mahabhagawat. During Samundra Manthan (agitating of the sea), when Lord Shiva drank the powerful poison Halahala and fell unconscious, goddess Parvati showed up as Maa Tara as mother and took the Lord on her lap. Goddess Tara at that point takes care of Shiva and fed him with breast milk which helped Lord Shiva to get back to normal. From that point onwards, Lord Shiva became Nilkantha and Goddess Tara became Maa Neel Saraswati for retaining the poison inside her.
At some point, Lord Shiva and Parvati were contending about the significance of Prakriti (nature) as Shiva told that all materialistic things are illusions. Parvati got more angry when he included that, even the food we eat is a illusion. Along these lines, so as to show the significance of food, Parvati vanished from Kailash. Due to her vanishing food likewise vanished and the world began to starve including Lord Shiva, in light of why they began asking goddess to return. In this way, Parvati returned as goddess Annapurna and offered food to the Kailash family, causing the world to unders,tand the significance of Prakriti.
Goddess Meenakshi, who is one of the incarnations of Goddess Parvati was born into the kingdom of a childless Pandyan King Malayadwaja Pandyan and Queen Kanchanamala of Madurai, from a pit of fire. She was called Meenakshi due to her fish-formed eyes. The bizarre thing was, the goddess had three breasts. Her father, the king was informed that her third breast would vanish the day she met her soulmate. She was raised as an undefeatable warier and was crowned the successor of the realm. In the process of conquering the world she came to Kailash and met Lord Shiva as “Sundareshwor”, and her third breast vanished. Along these lines, she took the Lord to her realm and got married to him.
According to Karna Parva of Mahabharata, King Malayadwaja died in the battle of Kurukshetra. Goddess Meenakshi ascended to the throne immediately after the Mahabharata war and ruled the kingdom with Lord Shiva as a mortal.
At the point when Parvati lost her concentration while Shiva was clarifying about the secrets of the Universe and Vedas, he cursed her to be reborn in mortal land as a fisherwoman, with the goal that she can figure out how to focus. After this curse, Parvati promptly vanished and was conceived as a girl child shielded under a huge tree, who was then found by the head of the fisherman of that territory. The man took her in as his child and named her “Parvati”. She grew up to be a lovely woman and to get her back, Lord Shiva likewise appeared as an fisherman, impressed Parvati, and got married to her.
Andakhasura – Asura Son of Parvati
As referenced in Shiva Purana, one day when Parvati covered Shiva’s eyes from behind, Parvati’s hand sweated from the monstrous energy and a sweat drop fell on the ground. From it was brought into the world a dull visually impaired youngster. Shiva and Parvati named their child Andakha (which means conceived in darkness). Later Shiva offered Andakha to asura Hiranyaksha who has prayed Shiva for a kid. Throughout time Andakha, who was granted a help from Brahma, attempted to abduct wonderful goddess Parvati, without realizing that she was his mom. Later Shiva battled with Andakha and taught him a lesson, which caused him to understand that goddess Parvati was his mother. Andakha understanding his missteps requested forgiveness and forgiven by both Shiva and Parvati.
Vahana (Vehicle) of Goddess Parvati
Vahana of goddess Parvati is a lion named ‘Dawon’ which is also a half tiger. Dawon was offered by the gods to serve the goddess Parvati as her vahana (vehicle). In Hindu stories, Dawon is also known as Ghatokbahini Singha i.e. hybrid of lion and tiger. (Vehicles of Hindu Gods and Goddesses).
Achieving soft, beautiful and happy skin is a dream for most of us or at least a long-pending item on our wish list. While there are lot of suggestions, a laundry list of do's and don'ts to follow, there are some basics that don't change. We have to understand that happy skin is a holistic process that requires one to work on building healthy habits combined with good skincare.
Here's a ready reckoner by ITC Fiama of tried and tested skincare habits that will serve as a reminder that skincare doesn't need to be complicated, it just needs to be consistent.
* Cleanse & Moisturise -- The first and the simplest step towards healthy skin is regular cleansing and moisturising, it is advisable to use a moisturizing body soap that ensures your skin gets the right nutrients and remains supple and nourished. A great product suited to this requirement is Fiama Gel Bathing Bar, which is enriched with nature's goodness. Fiama's bathing bars come in 5 variants and they help moisturize the skin making it appear soft, happy and bouncy.
The first and the simplest step towards healthy skin is regular cleansing and moisturising. | Photo by Humphrey Muleba on Unsplash
* Balanced Diet -- Healthy skin is an outcome of a balanced diet. The food we eat provides the building blocks for healthy functioning of our bodies. Our diet has everything to do with the health of our skin. The nutrients, minerals, and proteins found in food support collagen production and healthy cell membranes, and protect skin from harmful stressors, such as UV exposure.
Healthy skin is an outcome of a balanced diet. | Photo by Sam Moqadam on Unsplash
* Smile -- While most of us hate the idea of having crow's eyes and lines while we smile. We rarely realize the benefits of a simple smile. When we smile the blood flow gets better, and the skin receives more oxygen and nutrients. This can help you develop a healthier complexion alternately it also leaves you stress free making you look happy and radiant.
When we smile the blood flow gets better, and the skin receives more oxygen and nutrients. | Photo by Lesly Juarez on Unsplash
* Drink Enough H20 -- With our bodies comprising of 70 per cent water, drinking sufficient amount of water is the easiest way to keep your skin healthy and hydrated. Drinking adequate water helps flush out toxins from our bodies, preventing pimples and acne and boosting the skin's elasticity. No wonder, water is called the elixir of life.
Drinking adequate water helps flush out toxins from our bodies, preventing pimples and acne and boosting the skin's elasticity. | Photo by Bluewater Sweden on Unsplash
* Move Your Body -- Along with cleansing and proper nutrition, another aspect which is important for happy skin is movement. When we move or burn calories, the body produces chemicals called endorphins. These endorphins interact with the receptors in the brain and trigger positive feelings and happy thoughts. This feeling of pure happiness and joy reflects on the skin, thus having the power to completely change your mood and keep you and your skin beaming. (IANS/ MBI)
When we move or burn calories, the body produces chemicals called endorphins. | Photo by Joanna Nix-Walkup on Unsplash
Keywords: Skin, soft, happy, healthy, food, move, calories, water, smile, moisturise, water, cleanse
It is true that street performances has been existing in India since ancient times. But, it was Philip Astley who brought the concept of circus in India in the 1880s. Interestingly, Astley is known as the father of modern circus.
Birth of the Great Indian Circus
In 1879, the Royal Italian Circus by Giuseppe Chiarini came to India. Before any of his shows, he would often say that India did not have a proper circus, and apparently, the country would have to wait for many years in order to develop the "circus trend".
Once, Balasahib Patwardhan, who was the king of the Kurundwad state of Sangli (today's Kolhapur) went to watch the circus. He was accompanied by Vishnupant Chatre, who was the keeper of his stable and also a riding master at the stables. As it was ritual, before starting with any performance, Chiarini used to challenge the audience by saying, "a thousand British Indian rupees and a horse would be given to anyone who would repeat his daring effects within six months". Interestingly, this time, the challenge was accepted by Chatre, and he announced that he will perform the same in Kurundwad within three months. And if he fails, he promised Chiarini that he would return "ten thousand British Indian rupees and top ten horses. On March 20, 1880, Chatre came to perform his circus at the Kurundwad Palace Grounds. But Chiarini did not come to see it.
Soon after this, Vishnupant Chatre bought most of the circus equipment from Chiarini, and within a year, he formed a new circus company called the "Great Indian Circus". This is referred to as the first circus company in India. Chatre's Great Indian Circus toured various parts of India and the world. Later on, Chatre merged his circus company with his cousin's company to launch a new company by the name of "Karlekar Grand Circus".
Other Famous Circuses of India
After the coming of Karlekar Grand Circus, many circuses came into being in India. In 1904, the Malabar Grand Circus, which was the first circus company in Kerala came into being under the leadership of Pariyali Kannan. Another circus named the Great Royal Circus was started in 1909. Though, its previous name was Madhuskar's Circus. One of the famous circuses of India was also the Grand Bombay Circus which was founded in the year 1920 by Baburao Kadam. Since a long time, tradition of circus as an art has been prevalent in India, though slight decline in its practice is evident now.
Keywords: India, Circus, Tradition, Art, Performance, Great Indian Circus, Philip Astley, Culture
By- Naman Rastogi
The first thing to understand about API security testing is that it is not a one-size-fits-all process. Testers must take into account the scope of the project, as well as the specific needs of developers and end-users. This article will provide you with some basic guidelines for an API security testing program. It will also outline some API security tests that you should consider including in your API testing process.
API security testing is a process that checks API functions for security vulnerabilities. These tests are intended to identify problems with the API's design, functionality, and implementation. API security testing is a proactive way to check the API for potential exploits.
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Tests To Include in API Security Testing
The API's parameter tampering test is a way to check any API calls that contain parameters for known attack patterns. The API security testing tool you use should provide warning alerts when it finds these types of vulnerability points.
Parameter tampering occurs because developers aren't properly securing the input data before it enters an API call from another application or web service. This gives attackers the ability to tamper with API input data. You can checkout this detailed guide on How to Perform Web Application Testing
Testing for API parameter tampering can include looking at all variables within API calls and checking whether they need to exist or not. In your tests, you'll also want to check how values are passed into API calls and whether or not they can be changed once data is passed in.
Also Read: No Halfway Deal In Security
Input fuzzing is one of the most basic kinds of testing you can perform on an API. It occurs when attackers send API inputs that contain random or unexpected values. This test will show you whether the API can handle random data or not. It should do so without impeding its performance, but rather enhancing it.
The API security testing tool you use should allow for several different types of fuzzing:
●Data Format Fuzzing: An input format can be modified to see how the API responds when an invalid value is received.
●Range Fuzzing: Some APIs only accept certain numeric ranges from authorized users, such as credit card numbers and phone numbers. You should check whether your API functions properly under this type of condition.
The first thing to understand about API security testing is that it is not a one-size-fits-all process.Getastra
●Boundary Fuzzing: This type of fuzzing should be used to check for boundaries within the API itself. For example, checking if a string is between certain character lengths, determining whether it's possible to pass in an empty parameter value that will still produce valid results, etc.
Testing for API input fuzzing can also include randomizing parameters that are always required by the API function being tested (e.g., session IDs). If these values don't need to exist, hackers will be able to bypass any checks made by the developers who have implemented strict guidelines regarding API usage.
Another API security test you should consider is to check for unhandled API functions. Unhandled API methods are those that developers didn't code into the API. This happens either because they were unaware of their necessity or simply forgot about them.
Allowing access to these functions creates a vulnerability point in your API's functionality. Unfortunately, attackers can use these vulnerabilities as attack vectors. API security testing should search for unhandled API methods and alert you to their presence.
This API security testing method will help you determine how well the API performs under different input conditions without any malicious actors trying to tamper with it.
A final API security test you should consider is to check for possible injection attacks. This type of vulnerability occurs when user-defined input data can be inserted into API calls as part of the API's scripting language.
Injecting attacks have been a long-time security threat for APIs. This is because they allow attackers to use any type of data that can be manipulated and inserted into an API call. They should ideally only allow what is provided by regular users or applications trying to access the API.
The API security testing process goes beyond just finding the presence of common API attack vectors like cross-site scripting (XSS), SQL injection, remote code execution, and much more. It also looks for other API features that can put your system at risk if they aren't properly secured with input validation defenses or strict API security features.
Though API security testing may seem daunting, it's a necessary step in securing your systems and data. As the saying goes, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure! If you don't have time to do this yourself, you can always seek help from security experts. The costs are justified by the benefits. So, make sure to conduct API security testing if you haven't already!
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