Sunday August 25, 2019

Sex Hormone Levels Linked to Heart Disease in Post-Menopausal Women

Postmenopausal women with high testosterone at heart disease risk

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Sex Hormone Levels Linked to Heart Disease in Post-Menopausal Women
Sex Hormone Levels Linked to Heart Disease in Post-Menopausal Women. Pixabay

Postmenopausal women with a higher blood level of the testosterone male hormone and a higher ratio of the oestrogen hormone could be at a higher risk of developing heart disease later in life, finds a study.

Among post-menopausal women, a higher ratio of testosterone/oestradiol — a major oestrogen produced in the ovaries — was associated with an elevated risk for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease and heart failure events, while higher levels of testosterone were associated with increased CVD and coronary heart disease.

On the other hand, higher oestradiol levels were associated with a lower coronary heart disease risk.

“Although sex hormone levels may be linked to future cardiovascular events, it is unclear what the best intervention is to modify sex hormone levels for risk reduction,” said Erin D. Michos, Associate Professor at the Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, US.

Representational image.
Representational image. Pixabay

“However, a sex hormone profile higher in male hormones may identify a woman at higher risk for cardiovascular disease who may benefit from other risk reduction strategies,” Michos added.

The risk for cardiovascular disease is much lower in women than men until women reach the age of 50 years of age, then risk rises dramatically after menopause.

Previous studies have demonstrated that higher androgen and lower oestrogen levels are associated with risk factors for heart disease in post-menopausal women; however, other studies show conflicting results, so the relationship between sex hormones and cardiovascular events in post-menopausal women remains unclear.

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The new research, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, evaluated the association of sex hormone levels with incident cardiovascular disease, over a 12-year follow-up in 2,834 post-menopausal women free of cardiovascular disease at baseline.

Sex hormone concentrations were measured using fasting serum samples. Sex hormone levels after menopause were associated with women’s increased risk of CVD in later life. (IANS)

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Women with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) at Elevated Risk of Getting Cancer

It's reasonable to assume that sleep apnea is a risk factor for cancer or that both conditions have common risk factors, such as overweight

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Women, OSA, Cancer
The study, published in the European Respiratory Journal, is based on analyses of registry data, collected in the European database ESADA, on a total of some 20,000 adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Pixabay

Women with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appear to be at an elevated risk of getting cancer than men with the condition, warn researchers.

The study, published in the European Respiratory Journal, is based on analyses of registry data, collected in the European database ESADA, on a total of some 20,000 adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). About 2 per cent of them also had a cancer diagnosis.

“It’s reasonable to assume that sleep apnea is a risk factor for cancer or that both conditions have common risk factors, such as overweight. On the other hand, it is less likely that cancer leads to sleep apnea,” said Ludger Grote, Professor at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden.

According to the researchers, advanced age was associated with elevated cancer risk, but adjusting the data for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol consumption nevertheless showed a possible link between intermittent hypoxia at night and higher cancer prevalence.

Women, OSA, Cancer
Women with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appear to be at an elevated risk of getting cancer than men with the condition, warn researchers. Pixabay

The connection applied mainly to women and was weaker in men.

“Our results indicate a cancer risk that’s elevated two- to three-fold among women with pronounced sleep apnea,” Grote said.

The condition of sleep apnea is well known to the general public and associated with snoring, daytime fatigue, and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, especially in men, said the study.

This research paves the way for a new view — that sleep apnea may possibly be connected with increased cancer risk, especially in women.

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“Above all, the focus has been on the connection with one form of cancer: malignant melanoma. Cancer of the breast or womb may now become a new area. There may be a combined effect of female sex hormones and stress activation, induced by nocturnal hypoxia in sleep apnea, that can trigger cancer development or a weakening of the body’s immune system,” Grote concluded. (IANS)