Wednesday October 24, 2018

Sex Hormone Levels Linked to Heart Disease in Post-Menopausal Women

Postmenopausal women with high testosterone at heart disease risk

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Sex Hormone Levels Linked to Heart Disease in Post-Menopausal Women
Sex Hormone Levels Linked to Heart Disease in Post-Menopausal Women. Pixabay
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Postmenopausal women with a higher blood level of the testosterone male hormone and a higher ratio of the oestrogen hormone could be at a higher risk of developing heart disease later in life, finds a study.

Among post-menopausal women, a higher ratio of testosterone/oestradiol — a major oestrogen produced in the ovaries — was associated with an elevated risk for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease and heart failure events, while higher levels of testosterone were associated with increased CVD and coronary heart disease.

On the other hand, higher oestradiol levels were associated with a lower coronary heart disease risk.

“Although sex hormone levels may be linked to future cardiovascular events, it is unclear what the best intervention is to modify sex hormone levels for risk reduction,” said Erin D. Michos, Associate Professor at the Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, US.

Representational image.
Representational image. Pixabay

“However, a sex hormone profile higher in male hormones may identify a woman at higher risk for cardiovascular disease who may benefit from other risk reduction strategies,” Michos added.

The risk for cardiovascular disease is much lower in women than men until women reach the age of 50 years of age, then risk rises dramatically after menopause.

Previous studies have demonstrated that higher androgen and lower oestrogen levels are associated with risk factors for heart disease in post-menopausal women; however, other studies show conflicting results, so the relationship between sex hormones and cardiovascular events in post-menopausal women remains unclear.

Also Read: Women Gain Weight in New Relationship

The new research, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, evaluated the association of sex hormone levels with incident cardiovascular disease, over a 12-year follow-up in 2,834 post-menopausal women free of cardiovascular disease at baseline.

Sex hormone concentrations were measured using fasting serum samples. Sex hormone levels after menopause were associated with women’s increased risk of CVD in later life. (IANS)

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Family Size Can Be Determined By Reproductive Rights: Study

To make freedom of choice a reality, the report urges countries to offer universal access to quality reproductive health care

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A community health worker holds up contraceptives during a lecture on family planning at a reproductive health clinic run by an NGO in Tondo city, metro Manila. VOA

Family size is closely linked to reproductive rights, according to the State of World Population 2018 report.

The U.N. report says people in developed countries tend to have lower fertility rates because of greater access to family planning services, modern contraceptives and age-appropriate sex education.

The director of the U.N. Population Fund office in Geneva, Monica Ferro, says in places where reproductive rights are constrained, either due to lack of resources or government mandates, people have a limited ability to choose the size of their families.

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Google suspends Ireland’s Abortion Referendum Ads, VOA

“Many sub-Saharan African countries, for example, have fertility rates of four or more births per woman,” Ferro said. “At the other end of the spectrum, you have some eastern Asian and European countries with fewer than two births per women. In both cases, individuals face obstacles to the full realization of their reproductive rights.”

The world population is expected to increase by 2.5 billion by 2050, to nearly 10 billion people, with sub-Saharan Africa expected to contribute more than half of that growth.

Women in Africa must overcome many legal and social barriers to achieve control of their fertility, Ferro said.

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Women in Africa must overcome many legal and social barriers to achieve control of their fertility.

“Women may not have the access to medical services,” she told VOA. “They may not have the access to child care. They may not have access to all the institutional and social support that comes with being ready or being able to plan your fertility.”

Also Read: Brisbane, Australia Protests Against Plans To Decriminalise Abortion

To make freedom of choice a reality, the report urges countries to offer universal access to quality reproductive health care, including modern contraceptives and better education.

It also advocates for a change in men’s attitudes toward a woman’s right to choose the number, timing and spacing of children. (VOA)