Thursday April 18, 2019

Sex Hormone Levels Linked to Heart Disease in Post-Menopausal Women

Postmenopausal women with high testosterone at heart disease risk

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Sex Hormone Levels Linked to Heart Disease in Post-Menopausal Women
Sex Hormone Levels Linked to Heart Disease in Post-Menopausal Women. Pixabay

Postmenopausal women with a higher blood level of the testosterone male hormone and a higher ratio of the oestrogen hormone could be at a higher risk of developing heart disease later in life, finds a study.

Among post-menopausal women, a higher ratio of testosterone/oestradiol — a major oestrogen produced in the ovaries — was associated with an elevated risk for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease and heart failure events, while higher levels of testosterone were associated with increased CVD and coronary heart disease.

On the other hand, higher oestradiol levels were associated with a lower coronary heart disease risk.

“Although sex hormone levels may be linked to future cardiovascular events, it is unclear what the best intervention is to modify sex hormone levels for risk reduction,” said Erin D. Michos, Associate Professor at the Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, US.

Representational image.
Representational image. Pixabay

“However, a sex hormone profile higher in male hormones may identify a woman at higher risk for cardiovascular disease who may benefit from other risk reduction strategies,” Michos added.

The risk for cardiovascular disease is much lower in women than men until women reach the age of 50 years of age, then risk rises dramatically after menopause.

Previous studies have demonstrated that higher androgen and lower oestrogen levels are associated with risk factors for heart disease in post-menopausal women; however, other studies show conflicting results, so the relationship between sex hormones and cardiovascular events in post-menopausal women remains unclear.

Also Read: Women Gain Weight in New Relationship

The new research, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, evaluated the association of sex hormone levels with incident cardiovascular disease, over a 12-year follow-up in 2,834 post-menopausal women free of cardiovascular disease at baseline.

Sex hormone concentrations were measured using fasting serum samples. Sex hormone levels after menopause were associated with women’s increased risk of CVD in later life. (IANS)

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Mission of Female Empowerment, Ivanka Trump Aims at Increasing Economic Opportunities For Women

She was in the East African country to promote a $50 million initiative enacted by her father in February that is aimed at encouraging women's employment in developing countries.

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US Senior White House advisor Ivanka Trump attends a meeting as part of the African Women’s Empowerment Dialogue, on Apr. 15, 2019, in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa. VOA

U.S. President Donald Trump’s daughter and White House advisor, Ivanka, is heading to the Ivory Coast to continue her four-day trip aimed at increasing economic opportunities for women in the West African region.

Ivanka Trump, who serves as advisor to her father on economic empowerment, began her trip to the region with a visit to the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa Sunday, where she announced a multi-million dollar U.S. government initiative to support women entrepreneurs.

The “2X Africa” initiative announced Monday by Trump and David Bohigian, the acting head of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, aims to mobilize $1 billion and directly invest $350 million in companies and funds “owned by women, led by women,” or by “providing a good or service that intentionally empowers women on the continent.”

Donald Trump
It was not immediately clear if the controversy that surrounds the U.S. president will follow his daughter to Africa. The president has not been kind in his remarks about Africa and its migrants. VOA

Later in the day, Ivanka Trump met with President Sahle-Work Zewde. They discussed a need for reform in Africa that would lead to improved opportunity and inclusivity for women.

She also held discussions on women’s empowerment with Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, commending him for increasing the number of women in leadership positions in his government.

On Sunday, Bohigian signed a “letter of interest” with an Ethiopian company called Muya to help support the company through OPIC financing. Muya, owned by fashion designer Sara Abera, produces household products and was the first Ethiopian company to obtain membership in the World Fair Trade Organization.

Trump visited Muya on Sunday after she arrived in Addis Ababa for a summit on African women’s economic inclusion and empowerment.

 

“Fundamentally, we believe that investing in women is a smart development policy and it is a smart business,” Trump said after sampling coffee at a traditional Ethiopian ceremony. “It’s also in our security interest, because women, when we’re empowered, foster peace and stability.”

White House senior adviser Ivanka Trump smiles at Azalech Tesfaye, who is the recipient of loan guarantee through USAID, as Trump meets women who work in the Ethiopian coffee industry, Sunday Apr. 14, 2019.
White House senior adviser Ivanka Trump smiles at Azalech Tesfaye, who is the recipient of loan guarantee through USAID, as Trump meets women who work in the Ethiopian coffee industry, Sunday Apr. 14, 2019. VOA

Trump also laid a wreath at an Ethiopian Orthodox church to honor the victims of last month’s Ethiopian Airlines crash that killed all 157 people on board.

It was not immediately clear if the controversy that surrounds the U.S. president will follow his daughter to Africa. The president has not been kind in his remarks about Africa and its migrants. (VOA)