Tuesday April 7, 2020

Know About the 2 Different Conditions in Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is two different conditions, says a recent study

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diabetes
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying them. Pixabay

Researchers have revealed that children under the age of seven, who are diagnosed with with Type 1 diabetes have a different form of the condition compared with those diagnosed aged 13 or above.

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying them. This is a health news. This means they no longer regulate blood sugar levels effectively and people affected by the condition must inject insulin several times a day to do this job, the researchers said.

They have suggested new names for the two distinct endotypes: Type 1 Diabetes Endotype 1 (T1DE1) for that diagnosed in the youngest children, and Type 1 Diabetes Endotype 2 (T1DE2) for those who are older at diagnosis.

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Researchers also studied whether the differences seen in the pancreas are mirrored in the blood of people diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at increasing ages. Pixabay

“We’re extremely excited to find evidence that type 1 diabetes is two separate conditions: T1DE1 and T1DE 2. The significance of this could be enormous in helping us to understand what causes the illness, and in unlocking avenues to prevent future generations of children from getting type 1 diabetes,” said study researcher Noel Morgan, Professor at the University of Exeter in the UK. “It might also lead to new treatments, if we can find ways to reactivate dormant insulin-producing cells in the older age group,” Morgan added.

The study, published in the journal Diabetologia, showed that children who were diagnosed under 7 years old do not process insulin properly and the cells that make it are quickly destroyed. Surprisingly, those who are older at diagnosis (aged 13 or over) often continue to produce normal insulin; findings which reignite important questions about whether these “dormant” insulin-producing cells could be reinvigorated to work more effectively.

The research team reached their conclusions by analysing two bioresources including the unique Exeter pancreatic biobank comprising more than 130 samples, many of which come from children and young people who died soon after being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. They also studied whether the differences seen in the pancreas are mirrored in the blood of people diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at increasing ages.

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“Our research could have a significant impact on current emerging therapies for type 1,” said study researcher Sarah Richardson. “We’re seeing a lot of promise in immunotherapies which can slow disease progression, but so far that hasn’t translated into effective new treatments. It could be that we need to focus on the use of different therapies in each age group, for these to be effective,” Richardson added. (IANS)

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Physical Abuse During Childhood May Lead To Heavy Cigarette Use: Study

The researchers used their responses about smoking between the ages of 12 and 18 to identify three patterns of cigarette use

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Adolescent cigarette smoking is a really serious social problem and public health concern. Pixabay

Researchers have found that children who have been abused, mistreated or neglected at home are more likely to start smoking cigarette and other substances.

The study, published in the journal Substance Use & Misuse, showed that physical abuse of children in high-risk homes, especially when they’re toddlers or teens, dramatically increases the odds that their adolescent experimentation with cigarettes will lead to a heavy smoking habit.

For the findings, the study examined data on children who were at high risk for abuse and neglect — either because they had been referred to a child protective service or lived in conditions associated with the likelihood of maltreatment or both. “I wanted to look at different types of maltreatment and whether they have an impact on cigarette smoking,” said study lead author Susan Yoon, Assistant Professor at Ohio State University in the US.

“Adolescent cigarette smoking is a really serious social problem and public health concern. Brain development is not complete until late adolescence or during young adulthood, and cigarette smoking is associated with damage in brain development,” Yoon said.

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“We also know that those who start smoking cigarettes during adolescence are more likely to continue smoking into adulthood,” Yoon added. For the results, the research team used data on 903 adolescents, who were assessed at age 12, 16 and 18.

A breakdown of different types of abuse and neglect experienced by the sample population during three different time periods (early childhood, school age and adolescence) confirmed how vulnerable these kids were.

The researchers used their responses about smoking between the ages of 12 and 18 to identify three patterns of cigarette use: stable low/no use (61 per cent of respondents), gradually increasing use (30 per cent) and sharply increasing cigarette use (nine per cent).

“It was almost shocking how the pattern of cigarette use over time went up so drastically in the sharply increasing use class,” Yoon said.

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Researchers have found that children who have been abused, mistreated or neglected at home are more likely to start smoking cigarettes and other substances. Pixabay

“They were pretty similar to the others at age 12 — almost 80 percent didn’t smoke. At age 16, we saw that almost 60 per cent had used cigarettes more than 20 days in the past year and by 18, every single kid in this group reported heavy use of cigarettes,” Yoon added.

A statistical analysis showed that adolescents who experienced early childhood physical abuse were 2.3 times more likely to be in the sharply increasing cigarette use group compared with the stable no/low group. Physical abuse during adolescence had an even stronger effect — this type of mistreatment at that point in life was linked to 3.7 times higher odds for sharply increased cigarette use. Adolescents who had been neglected during early childhood were 1.89 times more likely to be in the gradually increasing cigarette use group than in the stable no/low use group.

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About 40 per cent of these smokers had reported using cigarettes at age 16, and by age 18, more than 80 per cent were smokers, and about 40 per cent had smoked on more than 20 days in the previous year, the study said. (IANS)