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2D semiconducting material discovery comes to India’s share

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Utah: A new kind of 2D semiconducting material has been discovered by an Indian-origin engineer hailing from the university of Utah. This semi-conducting device opens the door for much speedier computers and smartphones that consume a lot less power.

The materials used in the semiconductor are tin and oxygen or tin monoxide (SnO) by the associate professor Ashutosh Tiwari- led team. It is a layer of 2D material only one atom thick, allowing electrical charges to move through it much faster than conventional 3D materials such as silicon.

This is very useful for transistors which prove to be the lifeblood of all electronic devices such as computer processors and graphics processors in desktop computers and mobile devices.

But the downside to 3D materials is that electrons bounce around inside the layers in all directions.

“The benefit of 2D materials is that the material is made of one layer the thickness of just one or two atoms. Consequently, the electrons can only move in one layer so it’s much faster,” Tiwari said.

Transistors made with Tiwari’s semi-conducting material could lead to computers and smartphones that are over 100 times faster than regular devices.

“Because the electrons move through one layer instead of bouncing around in a 3D material, there will be less friction, meaning the processors will not get as hot as normal computer chips,” the authors noted.

They will also require much less power to run which turns out to be a boon for mobile electronics that have to run on battery power.

According to Tiwari, this could be of utter important for medical devices such as electronic implants that will run longer on a single battery charge.

Now that Tiwari and his team have discovered this new 2D material, it can lead to the manufacturing of transistors that are even smaller and faster than those in use today.

A computer processor is comprised of billions of transistors, and the more transistors packed into a single chip, the more powerful the processor can become.

“The field is very hot right now and people are very interested in it,” Tiwari said, adding that in two or three years, we should see at least some prototype device.

The paper describing the material was published in the journal Advanced Electronic Materials.(IANS)(Image-householdappliancesworld.com)

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Scientists Produce Complex Glass From 3D Printing

The researchers can change various parameters in each layer, including pore size.

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3D printing or additive manufacturing
3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. Pixabay

Creating glass objects using 3D printing is not easy but a groups of researchers including one of Indian-origin has now used a better technique to produce complex glass objects with addictive manufacturing.

Researchers from ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich) used the method based on stereolithography, one of the first 3D printing techniques developed during the 1980s.

David Moore, Lorenzo Barbera and Kunal Masania in the Complex Materials group led by ETH processor Andre Studart developed a special resin that contains a plastic and organic molecules to which glass precursors are bonded.

The resin can be processed using commercially available ‘Digital Light Processing’ technology.

This involves irradiating the resin with UV light patterns. Wherever the light strikes the resin, it hardens because the light sensitive components of the polymer resin cross link at the exposed points.

3D Printing of molecules in hand
This image shows molecules in hand. The molecular model appears on the computer screen, tumbling and turning in real time as the person holding the object manipulates it. Pixabay

The plastic monomers combine to form a labyrinth like structure, creating the polymer. The ceramic-bearing molecules fill the interstices of this labyrinth, said the team in a paper published in the journal Natural Materials.

An object can thus be built up layer by layer. The researchers can change various parameters in each layer, including pore size.

“We discovered that by accident, but we can use this to directly influence the pore size of the printed object,” said Masania.

These 3D-printed glass objects are still no bigger than a die. Large glass objects, such as bottles, drinking glasses or window panes, cannot be produced in this way “which was not actually the goal of the project,” emphasised Masania.

ALSO READ: Google Glass to help patients in remote areas

The aim was rather to prove the feasibility of producing glass objects of complex geometry using a 3D printing process. However, the new technology is not just a gimmick.

The researchers applied for a patent and are currently negotiating with a major Swiss glassware dealer who wants to use the technology in his company. (IANS)

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Researchers Use AI To Turn (2D) Images Into 3D

Artificial Intelligence can now be used to convert 2D images into 3D

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AI
Researchers used AI to turn two-dimensional (2D) images into stacks of virtual three-dimensional (3D) slices showing activity inside organisms. Pixabay

A team of researchers has used Artificial Intelligence (AI) to turn two-dimensional (2D) images into stacks of virtual three-dimensional (3D) slices showing activity inside organisms.

Using deep learning techniques, the team from University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) devised a technique that extends the capabilities of fluorescence microscopy, which allows scientists to precisely label parts of living cells and tissue with dyes that glow under special lighting.

In a study published in the journal Nature Methods, the scientists also reported that their framework, called “Deep-Z,” was able to fix errors or aberrations in images, such as when a sample is tilted or curved.

Further, they demonstrated that the system could take 2D images from one type of microscope and virtually create 3D images of the sample as if they were obtained by another, more advanced microscope.

“This is a very powerful new method that is enabled by deep learning to perform 3D imaging of live specimens, with the least exposure to light, which can be toxic to samples,” said senior author Aydogan Ozcan, UCLA chancellor’s professor of electrical and computer engineering.

In addition to sparing specimens from potentially damaging doses of light, this system could offer biologists and life science researchers a new tool for 3D imaging that is simpler, faster and much less expensive than current methods.

AI
3D imaging that shows the activity inside organisms has been made easier with the use of AI. Pixabay

The opportunity to correct for aberrations may allow scientists studying live organisms to collect data from images that otherwise would be unusable.

Investigators could also gain virtual access to expensive and complicated equipment, said researchers.

“Deep-Z” was taught using experimental images from a scanning fluorescence microscope, which takes pictures focused at multiple depths to achieve 3D imaging of samples.

In thousands of training runs, the neural network learned how to take a 2D image and infer accurate 3D slices at different depths within a sample.

Then, the framework was tested blindly – fed with images that were not part of its training, with the virtual images compared to the actual 3D slices obtained from a scanning microscope, providing an excellent match.

The researchers also found that Deep-Z could produce 3D images from 2D surfaces where samples were tilted or curved.

Also Read- Bariatric Surgery Leads To Nutritional Deficiency

“This feature was actually very surprising,” said Yichen Wu, a UCLA graduate student who is co-first author of the publication. “With it, you can see through curvature or other complex topology that is very challenging to image.” (IANS)

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FIFA World Cup 2018: Indian Cuisine becomes the most sought after in Moscow

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Indian cuisine in FIFA World cup
Indian dishes available in Moscow during FIFA World Cup 2018, representational image, wikimedia commons

June 17, 2018:

Restaurateurs Prodyut and Sumana Mukherjee have not only brought Indian cuisine to the ongoing FIFA World Cup 2018 here but also plan to dish out free dinner to countrymen if Argentina wins the trophy on July 15.

Based in Moscow for the last 27 years, Prodyut and Sumana run two Indian eateries, “Talk Of The Town” and “Fusion Plaza”.

You may like to read more on Indian cuisine: Indian ‘masala’, among other condiments spicing up global food palate.

Both restaurants serve popular Indian dishes like butter chicken, kebabs and a varied vegetarian spread.

During the ongoing FIFA World Cup 2018, there will be 25 per cent discount for those who will possess a Fan ID (required to watch World Cup games).

There will also be gifts and contests on offers during matches in both the restaurants to celebrate the event.

The Mukherjees, hailing from Kolkata, are die-hard fans of Argentina. Despite Albiceleste drawing 1-1 with Iceland in their group opener with Lionel Messi failing to sparkle, they believe Jorge Sampaoli’s team can go the distance.

“I am an Argentina fan. I have booked tickets for a quarterfinal match, a semifinal and of course the final. If Argentina goes on to lift

During the World Cup, there will be 25 per cent discount for those who will possess a Fan ID (required to watch World Cup games).

There will also be gifts and contests on offers during matches in both the restaurants to celebrate the event.

FIFA World Cup 2018 Russia
FIFA World Cup 2018, Wikimedia Commons.

“We have been waiting for this World Cup. Indians come in large numbers during the World Cup and we wanted these eateries to be a melting point,” he added.

According to Cutting Edge Events, FIFA’s official sales agency in India for the 2018 World Cup, India is amongst the top 10 countries in terms of number of match tickets bought.

Read more about Indian cuisine abroad: Hindoostane Coffee House: London’s First Indian Restaurant.

Prodyut came to Moscow to study engineering and later started working for a pharmaceutical company here before trying his hand in business. Besides running the two restaurants with the help of his wife, he was into the distribution of pharmaceutical products.

“After Russia won the first match of the World Cup, the footfall has gone up considerably. The Indians are also flooding in after the 6-9 p.m. game. That is the time both my restaurants remain full,” Prodyut said.

There are also plans to rope in registered fan clubs of Latin American countries, who will throng the restaurants during matches and then follow it up with after-game parties till the wee hours.

“I did get in touch with some of the fan clubs I had prior idea about. They agreed to come over and celebrate the games at our joints. Those will be gala nights when both eateries will remain open all night for them to enjoy,” Prodyut said.

Watching the World Cup is a dream come true for the couple, Sumana said.

“We want to make the Indians who have come here to witness the spectacle and feel at home too. We always extend a helping hand and since we are from West Bengal, we make special dishes for those who come from Bengal,” she added. (IANS)