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Kuala Lumpur: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday called for a new global resolve to fight terrorism and spoke of the need for unimpeded commerce in the Asia Pacific and the Indian Ocean regions.
Modi had a hectic schedule on the second day of his visit to Malaysia, addressing the 10th East Asia Summit (EAS), unveiling a statue of Swami Vivekananda, meeting Malay-Indian political leaders and delivering a speech to a diaspora gathering in which he sought to revitalize the bonds between India and the Indian-origin people in this southeast Asian nation.
Besides India, the countries that participate in the annual East Asia Summit held immediately after the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) Summit are Australia, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Zealand, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, the US, and Vietnam.
In his address at the East Asia Summit, Modi said “the barbaric terrorist strikes” in Paris, Ankara, Beirut, Mali, and on the Russian aircraft that was brought down in Egypt’s Sinai last month were a stark reminder that the shadow of terror stretched across the world.
“We must build new global resolve and new strategies for combating terrorism, without balancing it against political considerations,” the prime minister added.
Without naming Pakistan, he said no country should use or support terrorism.
“There is no distinction between groups. There are no sanctuaries. There are no funds. There is no access to arms. But, we also have to work within our societies and with our youth. I welcome the commitment to de-link religion from terrorism and the efforts to promote human values that define every faith,” Modi said.
Stating that since his government came to power 18 months ago, no region has seen greater engagement from India than the Asia Pacific and the Indian Ocean regions, Modi outlined his vision of five elements for an Asian century, including a regional architecture for security cooperation.
Describing the ocean as a pathway to peace and prosperity, Modi said India shares with Asean (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) “a commitment to freedom of navigation, overflight and unimpeded commerce in accordance with accepted principles of international law…”
Referring to the disputes in the South China Sea, Modi said India hoped that all parties will abide by the declaration on the conduct and the guidelines on the implementation.
“Parties must also redouble efforts for early adoption of a Code of Conduct on the basis of consensus,” he said.
He also sought an early conclusion of a regional comprehensive economic partnership.
Later in his address to the diaspora, Modi sought to enhance India’s connect with the people of Indian origin in Malaysia with a lavish praise for their accomplishments and a string of announcements, including naming a cultural center here after freedom fighter Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and one million dollar as additional fund to corpus of India-students Trust Fund.
Of the nearly 30 million population of Malaysia, around two million people are of Indian origin.
As over 15,000 people of Indian origin chanted “Modi, Modi” at the Malaysian International Exhibition and Convention Center here, the Indian prime minister acknowledged the large proportion of people of Tamil majority among the Indian diaspora in this southeast Asian nation by starting with the greeting, “Vanakkam”.
Modi said his government was prepared to work with the Malaysian government to build a memorial to Indian soldiers who laid down their lives in Malaysia during World War II.
He said India and Malaysia should recognize each other’s degree, on which he would talk with Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak.
He talked of India and Malaysia drawing strength from their respective diversities.
“India is a nation where everyone has equal rights that the constitution guarantees, the court protects and government defends,” Modi said.
He also spoke on the issue of terrorism, describing it as the biggest threat to the world today.
Modi said independent India owed a debt of gratitude to Malay-Indians.
“Your forefathers in thousands came forward to join Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army.”
“India is not confined to its territory. India exists in every Indian in every part of the world,” he added.
While unveiling a statue of Swami Vivekananda at the Ramakrishna Mission complex here, he said that people should instil the values of the great Indian sage and philosopher in their mind and soul.
He met a delegation of the Malaysian Indian Congress and other Malay-Indian parliamentarians and lawmakers.
Modi wraps up his Malaysia visit on Monday and leaves for Singapore on the second and last leg of his tour.
Kerala is a land of many good things. It has an abundance of nature, culture, art, and food. It is also a place of legend and myth, and is known for its popular folklore, the legend of Yakshi. This is not a popular tale outside the state, but it is common knowledge for travellers, especially those who fare through forests at night.
The legend of the yakshi is believed to be India's equivalent of the Romanian Dracula, except of course, the Yakshi is a female. Many Malayalis believe that the Yakshi wears a white saree and had long hair. She has a particular fragrance, which is believed to be the fragrance of the Indian devil-tree flowers. She seduces travellers with her beauty, and kills them brutally.
Yakshi idol in Veroor, Sri Dharamashastha temple Image source: wikimedia commons
The Yakshi is believed to live in a palm tree which can appear like a palace. Victims are taken here before they are killed. Travellers on highways are often advised not to stop near heavily forested areas, or speak to anyone who closely resembles a Yakshi. Some believe she can change form, while other hold to the belief that she doesn't. after securing her victim, the only trace left behind is body parts like hair, nails, and teeth.
They say, like other ghosts, a Yakshi's feet will not touch the ground. This is something to look out for. Mysterious deaths have been reported across the rural areas in Kerala, and all these have been attributed to the legend.
Keywords: Legends, Yakshi, Urban legend, Ghost, Kerala, Myth, Vampire
The LGBTQ+ acronym stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and others. In India LGBTQ+ community also include a specific social group, part religious cult, and part caste: the Hijras. They are culturally defined either as "neither men nor women" or as men who become women by adopting women's dress and behavior. Section 377 of the India Penal code that criminalized all sexual acts "against the order of nature" i.e. engaging in oral sex or anal sex along with other homosexual activities were against the law, ripping homosexual people off of their basic human rights. Thus, the Indian Supreme Court ruled a portion of Section 377 unconstitutional on 6th September 2018.
But the question is, "was India always against homosexuality"? Has the concept of homosexuality being unnatural existed forever? No, in Indian history and Hinduism homosexuality has never been an offense, in fact in several instances it has been depicted how people embraced their identity, be it sexual identity or gender identity. Section 377 was brought to India by the British in 1862, while India was colonized. Even after the Independence, it was only in 2018 that the Supreme Court ruled it as irrational and illogical.
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Homosexuality in Ancient India
When Supreme Court decriminalized homosexuality in India, there was an uproar about it being a western ideology and liberalism. But in reality, homosexuality has existed since the time of the Vedas. The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association (GALVA) researched and discovered that it was around 3102 B.C. (during the Vedic Age) that homosexuality or non-normative sexual identity was recognized as "Tritiya Prakriti", or the third nature. Ancient India not only made mentions of homosexuality but accepted it as well.
Hinduism is the most vastly followed religion in India. Hinduism does not explicitly mention homosexuality however it does contain a homosexual theme and characters in its text. There have been various instances in our scriptures and texts that have introduced us to LGBT+ characters such as the androgynous form of Shiva and Parvati Ardhanariswara meaning "the half-female lord". One of the most popular and ancient texts on sexuality, eroticism, and emotional fulfillment of life, "Kamasutra" has a complete chapter dedicated to homosexuality and homosexual sex. Numerous Hindu sculptures and temples have statues depicting homosexual activities.
Numerous Hindu sculptures and temples have statues depicting homosexual activities. Facebook
Our Mughals were Queer
Mughals are often seen under the light of cruelty, rigid ethics, nobility, and polygamy. Simultaneously, Mughals are also the ones credited for the emergence of Sufism, abolished jizya tax, love beyond religion, classes, and gender.
In the Baburnama written in memoirs of our very first Mughal ruler Muhammad Babur, several instances documented Babur's infatuation and affection towards a teenage boy named Baburi. We also have multiple Persian couplets as evidence of Babur's affection for Baburi. Mughals engaged in homosexuality and pederasty, and they believed that later was a form of "pure love".
But as time passed homosexuality was suppressed more and more though people practiced it in secret if revealed they were punished. According to the Fatwa-e-Alamgiri Sharia-based text of the Mughal Empire, there is a common set of punishments for homosexuality, which could include 50 lashes for a slave, 100 for a free infidel, or death by stoning for a Muslim.
British Raj and Independence of India
In 1862, Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code that criminalized homosexual sex came into force. Even after Independence in 1947, the section remained a part of the Indian Constitution. There were protests all over the country to give people of the LGBT+ community basic human rights but it was not until 2018 that The Supreme Court of India ruled the portion of Section 377 has unconstitutional and struck it off. One judge said the landmark decision would "pave the way for a better future.". With Section 377 gone are LGBT+ people allowed to fall in love freely? No, people are still afraid to love because of the stigma in our society when it comes to homosexuality; they are seen as lesser humans.
ALSO READ: Significant Support for Rights for LGBTQ+
Although the Supreme Court has decriminalized homosexual activities, same-sex marriage remains illegal in the country. Homophobia is still prevalent in India, and homosexual children would rather commit suicide than come out to society with their true identity, that's how harsh of a world we live in. Lacking support from family, society, or police, many gay rape victims do not report the crimes. In 1977, writer and Indian mathematician Shakuntla Devi published "The World of Homosexuals". It was the first study in the Indian context; the book contains interviews with homosexual men set in the years of Emergency. She wrote, "rather than pretending that homosexuals don't exist it is time we face the facts squarely in the eye and find room for homosexual people." We've had small victories in our fight against homophobia and getting LGBT+ community the rights they deserve as humans, but we still have a long and exhausting fight ahead of us.
The Mysore kingdom became a popular tourist destination after India became an independent country. The Wodeyar dynasty who succeeded Tipu Sultan are still royalty, but they do not rule the state. Their heritage and culture have become what Karnataka is famous for.
Among the many things that Mysore offers to the state of Karnataka, the Mysore Peta is one. In north India, various cultures have their own headgears. They wear their traditional outfits on the days of festivities and ceremonies. Likewise, in the south, especially in Karnataka, the Mysore Peta is worn.
Made of the traditional Mysore silk, the Peta is usually a white turban decorated with a gold silk thread. It is worn by the Maharaja of Mysore during Dasara, or any other public appearance. This tradition has been preserved and is used all over the state by prominent leaders.
Politicians who want to appease older, more experienced politicians, offer a peta as a sign of honour. International guests are welcomed into the city with a peta and silk shawl. In universities, the peta is worn as a replacement to the black caps, as a sign of graduation and scholarship.
Even today, in the court of Mysore, petas are worn and given out as tokens of honour. The peta of the king varies from the ones a courtier wears, and even among them, there is a difference according to status. Petas are made by a particular family and passed down from generation to generation.
Keywords: Mysore kingdom, peta, silk, Wodeyar