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By Ruchika Verma
- Public Interest Litigation or PIL are filed for public interest
- With time, PIL has become one of the most important parts of Indian judiciary system
- There have been several iconic PILs in India which has made Indians grateful for their existence
Public interest litigation or PIL is a litigation filed for any concern of public interest. Public interest litigation can be filed in any court of law by any person for the protection of public interest.
PIL through years has achieved great importance in our legal system. India’s the first PIL was filed 1976, the case was Mumbai Kamgar Sabha vs M/s Abdulbhai Faizullabhai and others. After this landmark PIL, the whole concept evolved and now has become a very important part of Indian judiciary system.
Here is the list of 5 most iconic PILs which changed the face of Indian judiciary system:
Vishaka vs the State of Rajasthan
Bhanwari Devi, a social worker, was gang-raped in a village in Rajasthan in 1992. The gang rape was a result of her trying to discourage a family’s efforts of marrying their one year daughter. She filed a complaint with police and many NGOs came out in her support. Despite several efforts, when no justice was served to her, a PIL was filed.
The PIL in Supreme Court was filed by Naina Kapur in 1992. She was a lawyer who had attended Bhanwari Devi’s criminal trials. Her decision to file a PIL in Supreme Court challenged the sexual harassment in the workplace. It was filed against the State of Rajasthan, its Women & Child Welfare Department, Department of Social Welfare, and the Union of India.
The judgement later came to be known as Vishakha judgement and it recognized sexual harassment as a criminal offence. Many important guidelines were then released and many women’s rights also saw the light of the day after this judgement. It was definitely one of the most iconic PILs ever filed.
Javed vs the State of Haryana
This was another landmark PIL which changed India. As per, Haryana Provision “a person having more than two living children” was disqualified from holding any offices in the panchayats.The objective as to promote family planning.
The petitioners and appellants in the Javed case were those individuals who had been disqualified holding an office in panchayat because they had more than two children.
The court upheld the Haryana Provision, calling it a provision which was in public interest. The PIL indirectly promoted family planning in India, though the judgement definitely didn’t do anything to critically evaluate it.
Parmanand Katara vs Union of India
Parmanand Katara who was a human rights activist filed a PIL in the Supreme Court. He filed this landmark PIL because of the irresponsible hospitals and staffs who do not use to handle medico-legal cases immediately. This PIL results in the judgement which imposed that: Preservation of human life should be of utmost importance; Every doctor, be it in a public hospital or private, has the professional obligation to protect lives first. The first priority should always be saving lives and it is binding not only on doctors but also citizens, police and everyone else.
M.C. Mehta vs Union of India
This PIL filed by MC Mehta resulted in three judgments and a number of orders against more than 50,000 polluting industries which were harming the river, Ganga.
This PIL became the basis for the court to close down several tanneries and industries to protect the environment, specifically, the river Ganga.
Hussainara Khatoon vs the State of Bihar
Many people also regard this as the first PIL in India. This case was about the situation of people under-trial in Bihar. It was about those convicts who were in detention pending trial for periods far more than the maximum sentence period for their offences.
This PIL resulted in Court not only making the ‘right to speedy trials’ a central issue, but also passed orders facilitating it. It also passes orders to free the 40,000 people under-trials who had undergone detention beyond the maximum period for their offences.
By- Digital Hub
I prefer synthetic wigs as it isn't something that I would wear all the time - just when I look different. Additionally, their ease of use is an essential factor for me. However, suppose you're looking to wear a wig for a fashionable accessory or as a way for you to show your personality. In that case, I'd recommend buying multiple synthetic wigs of various styles and colors instead of only the one human hair wig at the same amount. However, be cautious - only purchase top-quality synthetic braids that are more expensive as you might be disappointed by the new style you've chosen.
Synthetic Vs Human Hair Wigs
A decent human hair wig will cost more than one made of synthetic. This is due to the supply of hair. While synthetic fibers are produced as needed, but long hair of women of good quality is in scarce supply. Human hair of the highest quality comes that comes from Eastern Europe, which is very low. The highest synthetic wigs are afro short wigs If you are looking for a human hair wig, the cost is more expensive and usually exceeds five hundred dollars, contingent upon the size. But you can find both kinds of wigs at a discount price from online stores that specialize in discount hair wigs. Cheap wigs aren't at any time inferior in quality; they're just not the latest models. If price is a concern, you should always purchase a high-quality synthetic wig instead of a low-quality human hair wig.
Require a Wig
If you're not sure of which wig you should pick, However, our suggestion is to choose the highest-quality human hair wig, especially if you plan to make it your style of the moment and wear it all day. Human hair wigs are the best choice for those who require a wig due to loss of hair. However, go for an artificial wig if you want to enjoy the way you look and change your appearance now and then.
Also read: Gemstones: Fashion Statements
In today's society, the wearing of a hair wig has become more common. A hair wig is an easy method to alter your appearance at any time you wish quickly. Women are more drawn to these wigs since they can change their hairstyle with ease. Wigs are usually worn by those who have shed their hair or those who wish to alter their hairstyle to be fashionable.
Human hair wigs on display at a store Image source: Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash
There is a variety of hair accessories in the market. They range from inexpensive to costly depending on their materials, style, and quality. If you're in search of a wig, then be sure to keep several factors in mind. First, the wig should be able to fit comfortably on your hair without making you appear odd. Additionally, the color of hair that is a part of the wig must match your physical appearance. Below are various hair accessories utilized by the majority of people.
If you are purchasing a human hair wig, make sure you know the origin of the hair. If you're looking to invest a few hundreds of dollars on a wig, it's recommended to purchase one of European hair. However, if the wig's label reads "human hair wig" without stating the origin for the hair, it's most likely made of Asian hair.
Also read: Latest Monsoon Fashion Trends
Human hair wigs have many advantages:
Human hair wigs last longer than synthetic ones
Human hair is soft and natural to the touch.
Human hair wigs can be dyed and styled as your hair
Human hair wigs "breathes" and your scalp won't sweat more than it does under one
Human hair wigs need to be styled at least once per wash
Human hair wigs are costly
While you can find numerous styles of synthetic wigs, but there aren't all fibers produced in the same way; for example, wigs that are costume-related for Halloween are typically made of lower quality fibers, which are expensive and appear to be the hair wig. For Halloween parties, this is okay, but for everyday use, you'll need a wig that looks like it's been growing around your head. On the other hand, contemporary synthetic materials utilized in top-quality designer wigs look highly practical for those who want to look realistic.
Disclaimer: (This article is sponsored and include some commercial links)
The prestigious British-based, Booker Prize, is one of the most prestigious and acclaimed awards given annually to the best work of fiction. This award is given to a work of fiction which is primarily written in English language and published in the United Kingdom or Ireland by the writers of any nationality.
This year, six authors were nominated for their work of fiction, and the winner will be announced on the 3rd of November.
The books which were shortlisted for the prestigious Booker Prize 2021 are:
1. The Fortune Men by Nadifa Mohamed
British-Somali writer, Nadifa Mohamed's novel, 'The Fortune Men', is a chilling reimagining of Mahmood Mattan's story. Mattan, who is the main character in the book, was a Somali seaman who was wrongfully imprisoned and executed for a murder in Wales.
2. Bewilderment by Richard Powers
Pulitzer-winner, Richard Powers' book is a story of a young astrobiologist, who is in search of finding life on other planets, and his troubled son, Robin. The book is a mixture of sci-fi and family romance. Interestingly, this is Powers' first book after winning the Pulitzer Prize in the year 2019.
3. Great Circle by Maggie Shipstead
This book is about the lives of pilot Marian Graves and Hadley Baxter, who was a troubled Hollywood actress. In the 1950s, Marian embarked on a journey to travel the world but then disappeared without a trace. Fifty years later, Hadley is drawn to play Marian's character, which indirectly leads her to probe the mysteries of the latter's life.
4. No One is Talking About This by Patricia Lockdwood
This is the first book by the American poet and memoirist. " 'No One Is Talking About This' is like a love letter to the endless scroll and a profound, modern meditation on love, language, and human connection from a singular voice in American literature," reads the book's blurb. This book was also one of the finalists for this year's Women's Prize for Fiction.
5. A Passage North by Anuk Arudpragasam
The Sri Lankan author's book tells the story of a young man who travels to Sri Lanka's war-torn North. The story deals with the themes of loss, longing, the legacy of war, and how it affects everyone. The author had earlier won the DSC Prize for his debut book "The Story of a Brief Marriage".
6. The Promise by Damon Galgut
Damon Galgut is a South African author. In this book, the author pens down the story about a white South African family living around in Pretoria, and the crisis they face during the last few years because of apartheid.
Today, 17 September,marks the 133rd birth anniversary of Michiyo Tsujimura, who was a Japanese scientist, and worked extensively on decoding the nutritional value of green tea.
Tsujimura spent her early career as a science teacher. And, in 1920, she chased her dream of becoming a scientific researcher at the Hokkaido Imperial University, where she began to analyse the nutritional properties of Japanese silkworms, in which she was very much interested.
After a few years, Tsujimura transferred to the Tokyo Imperial University, and began researching the biochemistry of green tea alongside Dr. Umetaro Suzuki, who is well known for his discovery of vitamin B1.
In their joint research in this area, it was revealed that green tea contained significant amount of vitamin C, which is the first of many, yet unknown molecular compounds in green tea.
Later on, in 1929, Tsujimura isolated catechin, which is bitter ingredient of tea. Then, the next year, she isolated tannin, which is an even more bitter compound. All these findings formed the foundation for her doctoral thesis– "On the Chemical Components of Green Tea", and through all this hard work, she graduated as Japan's first woman doctor of agriculture in the year 1932.
Moreover, Tsujimura also made history as an educator when she became the first ever Dean of the Faculty of Home Economics at the Tokyo Women's Higher Normal School in the year 1950.
Even today, a stone memorial in honor of Dr. Michiyo Tsujimura’s achievements can be found in her birthplace of Okegawa City.