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Africans In India adopt ‘The Indian Way of Life’ to protect themselves from Public Violence

Nigerians in Delhi appear to have adopted self-disciplining as the only form of protection from public violence

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Kabeya (right) share details about the protest against locals after four African nationals were attacked in Rajpkhurd village of Chhatarpur, South Delhi . Image Source:The Indian Express (by Cheena Kapoor)
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  • Nigerians in Delhi appear to have adopted self-disciplining as the only form of protection from public violence
  • The general attitude of the public towards people from various African countries has shifted from tolerance to assimilation
  • It is unlikely that the Africans who come to India are here by choice

A crammed urban village in South Delhi, Rajpur Khurda, has become the home for about a thousand men and women from African countries. A week after Congolese national, Masonda Ketada Olivier was beaten to death in neighboring Vasant Kunj, four cases of attacks on African nationals were reported from the twin villages of Rajpur Khurd and Maidan Garhi.

In response to these attacks, the members of an association of Nigerians in Delhi discussed ways to “understand and assimilate into what they call ‘the Indian way of life’ so that they can live harmoniously with the locals”. As part of this, the association has decided to impose fines of Rs 1,000 on people from the community found to be wearing “inappropriate” clothes that includes shorts and singlets.

Rights Group Condemns Racist Attacks On Nigerians In India. Image source: informationng.com
Rights Group Condemns Racist Attacks On Nigerians In India. Image source: informationng.com

Nigerians in Delhi appear to have adopted self-disciplining as the only form of protection from public violence. They have even come to an understanding that if they are beaten up by the locals for being Nigerian, Indian law is not likely to favour them. The perception that Indian law, or, rather, its administrators, harbour anti-African sentiments is a damning statement about its impartiality which we hold dear. It appears as if we are administering different rules for Africans and Indians.

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The general attitude of the public towards people from various African countries has shifted from tolerance to assimilation.

We tolerate those who have discarded their cultural identity and tend to be as far away from anything Indian. Yet we criticize and abuse foreigners asking them to be more like us. Hypocrisy is at play here. To prove our cultural superiority, we seek to run the citizens of other countries down to the ground. We tend to discriminate on the basis of nationality, culture, sex and even color. A Nigerian resident of Delhi said to an online news portal, “People need to understand, that I have not chosen my skin color, God has made me what I am.”

Talking about “the lack of English-speaking people in the village”, Mariamo , a Cameroon national points to her pink tights and a fitted tank top, and adds, “People here are extremely racist. Look how I am dressed now, is there a problem? I don’t understand what the men say about me, but I am not a fool, their expression says it all.”

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It is unlikely that the Africans who come to India are here by choice or that if given the choice; they would not prefer to be settled in the West.

Ethnic and religious minorities are frequently left with no choice but to make entirely unreasonable concessions for their safety and survival. Yet, as far as we are concerned, for Africans in India, this appears to be a good enough solution. It is an opinion so frequently expressed – and by so many – that their despair has, unsurprisingly, turned into self-policing.

We need to be accepting and tolerant not because of India’s geo-political interests or how it would affect India’s chances of a seat on the United Nations Security Council but because it is the right thing to do. (source: Scroll.In)

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How telecom has become driver of economic change in India

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The country's hyper-competitive telecom sector has led the revolution from the front.
The country's hyper-competitive telecom sector has led the revolution from the front. Wikimedia Commons
  • India has done well to stay ahead of the curve in the technological revolution
  • The sectoral change in productivity has been the highest in the telecommunications sector since the reforms of 1991
  • India has managed to provide the cheapest telephony services around the world

For the most part of human history, the change was glacial in pace. It was quite safe to assume that the world at the time of your death would look pretty much similar to the one at the time of your birth. That is no longer the case, and the pace of change seems to be growing exponentially. Futurist Ray Kurzweil put it succinctly when he wrote in 2001: “We won’t experience 100 years of progress in the 21st century – it will be more like 20,000 years of progress (at today’s rate).” Since the time of his writing, a lot has changed, especially with the advent of the internet.

India has done well to stay ahead of the curve in the technological revolution. The country’s hyper-competitive telecom sector has led the revolution from the front. In fact, according to Reserve Bank of India data, the sectoral change in productivity has been the highest in the telecommunications sector since the reforms of 1991, growing by over 10 percent. On the other hand, no other sector has had a productivity growth of above five percent during the same period. It is no wonder that it has also been one of the fastest-growing sectors of the Indian economy, growing at over seven percent in the last decade itself.

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Such an unprecedented pace of growth has been brought about the precise levels of change that Kurzweil was so enthusiastic about. Today’s smartphones have the power of computers that took an entire room in the 1990s, and the telecom sector has had to keep up with a provision of commensurate internet speeds and services. Meanwhile, India has managed to provide the cheapest telephony services around the world, which has hit rock bottom after the entry of Reliance Jio. This has ensured access to those even at the bottom of the pyramid.

A rise in internet penetration has distinct positive effects on economic growth of a country.
A rise in internet penetration has distinct positive effects on economic growth of a country. Wikimedia Commons

Even though consumers have come to be accustomed to fast-paced changes within the telecom sector, the entry of Jio altered the face of the industry like never before by changing the very basis of competition. Data became the focal point of competition for an industry that derived over 75 percent of its revenue from voice. It was quite obvious that there would be immediate economic effects due to it. Now that we’re nearing a year of Jio’s paid operations, during which time it has even become profitable, we saw it fit to quantify its socio-economic impact on the country. Three broad takeaways need to be highlighted.

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First, the most evident effect has been the rise in affordability of calling and data services. Voice services have become practically costless while data prices have dropped from an average of Rs 152 per GB to lower than Rs 10 per GB. Such a drastic reduction in data prices has not only brought the internet within the reach of a larger proportion of the Indian population but has also allowed newer segments of society to use and experience it for the first time. Since the monthly saving of an average internet user came out to be Rs 142 per month (taking a conservative estimate that the consumer is still using 1 GB of data each month) and there are about 350 million mobile internet users in the country (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India data), the yearly financial savings for the entire country comes out to be Rs 60,000 crore.

To put things in perspective, this amount is more than four times the entire GDP of Bhutan. Therefore, mere savings by the consumer on data has been at astonishing proportions.

Today's smartphones have the power of computers that took an entire room in the 1990s, and the telecom sector has had to keep up with a provision of commensurate internet speeds and services. Wikimedia Commons
Today’s smartphones have the power of computers that took an entire room in the 1990s, and the telecom sector has had to keep up with a provision of commensurate internet speeds and services. Wikimedia Commons

Now, this data has been used for services that have brought to life a thriving app economy within the country. So, the second level of impact has been in the redressal of a variety of consumer needs — ranging from education, health and entertainment to banking. For instance, students in remote areas can now access online courseware and small businesses can access newer markets. Information asymmetry has been considerably reduced.

Third, a rise in internet penetration has distinct positive effects on economic growth of a country. These effects arise not merely from the creation of an internet economy, but also due to the synergy effects it generates. Information becomes more accessible and communication a lot easier. Businesses find it easier to operate and access consumers. Labour working in cities has to make less frequent trips home and becomes more productive as a result. Education and health services become available in inaccessible locations. Multiple avenues open up for knowledge and skill enhancement.

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An econometric analysis for the Indian economy showed that the 15 percent increase in internet penetration due to Jio and the spill-over effects it creates will raise the per capita levels of the country’s GDP by 5.85 percent, provided all else remains constant.

Thus, India’s telecom sector will continue to drive the economy forward, at least in the short run, and hopefully catapult India into 20,000 years of progress within this century, as Kurzweil postulated. The best approach for the state would be to ensure the environment of unfettered competition within the industry. Maybe other sectors of the economy ought to take a leaf out of the telecom growth story. The Indian banking sector comes to mind. However, that is a topic for another day. (IANS)

(Amit Kapoor is Chair, Institute for Competitiveness, India. He can be contacted at Amit. Kapoor@competitiveness.in and tweets @kautiliya. Chirag Yadav, a senior researcher at the institute, has contributed to the article.)