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After Trump Threatens to Toss out Paris Agreement, 200 Nations ask the World to make Climate Change their “Highest Political Commitment”

Between 2012 and 2014, Trump tweeted several more times with some variation on the idea that climate change is a hoax

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FILE - Liu Zhenmin, vice foreign minister of China, visits the Foreign Ministry headquarters in Seoul, South Korea, March 11, 2015. VOA
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Nov 18, 2016: Nearly 200 nations are calling on the world to make the “highest political commitment” to fight climate change after U.S. President-elect Donald Trump threatened to toss out the Paris Agreement.

“Our climate is warming at an alarming and unprecedented rate and we have an urgent duty to respond,” delegates meeting at a U.N. climate conference in Marrakech, Morocco, said Thursday.

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They called the move away from carbon-emitting fossil fuels and toward renewable energy sources “irreversible,” according to a statement. “It is being driven not only by governments, but by science, business, and global action of all types at all levels.”

The delegates stood up and cheered, holding their hands above their heads in a gesture of victory after the statement was read.

Representatives of different indigenous groups from various countries protest during the UN Climate Change Conference 2016 (COP22) in Marrakech, Morocco, Nov. 17, 2016. VOA
Representatives of different indigenous groups from various countries protest during the UN Climate Change Conference 2016 (COP22) in Marrakech, Morocco, Nov. 17, 2016. VOA

The Marrakech talks were aimed at setting out a timetable for carrying out the Paris climate change agreement. The deal signed in April aims to cut carbon emissions and limit the rise in global temperatures to 2 degrees Celsius over the Industrial Revolution levels of the 19th century.

But success of the deal hinges on the cooperation and contributions of some of the world’s biggest polluters and consumers of fossil fuels, including the United States.

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[bctt tweet=”Trump’s longtime insistence that global warming is a Chinese-created hoax has many world leaders worried he will carry out his threat to pull out of the Paris deal. ” username=””]

“The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive,” Trump first tweeted in 2012.

He has also championed more gas and oil exploration, and promised to revive the moribund U.S. coal industry.

Nether Trump nor anyone from his transition team have talked publicly about global warming since his election.

But China’s Vice Foreign Minister Liu Zhenmin said in Morocco that former U.S. presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush began talks on global warming more than 30 years ago and China was not part of those early meetings. He said it is impossible the Chinese invented the concept.

FILE - Liu Zhenmin, vice foreign minister of China, visits the Foreign Ministry headquarters in Seoul, South Korea, March 11, 2015. VOA
FILE – Liu Zhenmin, vice foreign minister of China, visits the Foreign Ministry headquarters in Seoul, South Korea, March 11, 2015. VOA

“If you look at the history of climate change negotiations, actually it was initiated by the [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] with the support of the Republicans during the Reagan and senior Bush administration during the late 1980s,” Liu said.

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Between 2012 and 2014, Trump tweeted several more times with some variation on the idea that climate change is a hoax. He often said cold weather as a reason why he doesn’t believe in the concept.

“The weather has been so cold for so long that the global warming HOAXSTERS were forced to change the name to climate change to keep $ flow!” Trump tweeted in 2014.

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FILE – Liu Zhenmin, vice foreign minister of China, visits the Foreign Ministry headquarters in Seoul, South Korea, March 11, 2015. VOA

“If you look at the history of climate change negotiations, actually it was initiated by the [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] with the support of the Republicans during the Reagan and senior Bush administration during the late 1980s,” Liu said.

Between 2012 and 2014, Trump tweeted several more times with some variation on the idea that climate change is a hoax. He often said cold weather as a reason why he doesn’t believe in the concept.

“The weather has been so cold for so long that the global warming HOAXSTERS were forced to change the name to climate change to keep $ flow!” Trump tweeted in 2014.

FILE – Then Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump answers a question during the third presidential debate in Las Vegas, Oct. 19, 2016. Despite his own tweets, Trump has denied having made claims that climate change was a hoax invented by China. VOA

Trump has since denied making the claims.

During the first presidential debate with Democrat Hillary Clinton, Clinton said: “Donald thinks that climate change is a hoax perpetrated by the Chinese. I think it’s real. I think science is real.”

To which Trump responded, “I did not, I did not. I do not say that.”

Meanwhile, U.S. government experts said Thursday that 2016 is on track to be the hottest year in recorded history, with a global temperature so far nearly 1 degree Celsius above normal.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said this October was the third-hottest October on record. (VOA)

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Climate change can have an effect on the taste of the wines

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Climate change can have an effect on the taste of the wine
Climate change can have an effect on the taste of the wine. wikimedia commons

New York, Jan 3, 2018: Although winegrowers seem reluctant to try new grape varieties apparently to protect the taste of the wines, new research suggests that they will ultimately have to give up on their old habit as planting lesser-known grape varieties might help vineyards to counteract some of the effects of climate change.

vineyards. wikimedia commons

“It’s going to be very hard, given the amount of warming we’ve already committed to… for many regions to continue growing the exact varieties they’ve grown in the past,” said study co-author Elizabeth Wolkovich, Assistant Professor at Harvard University.

“With continued climate change, certain varieties in certain regions will start to fail — that’s my expectation,” she said.

The study, published in the journal Nature Climate Change, suggests that wine producers now face a choice — proactively experiment with new varieties, or risk suffering the negative consequences of climate change.

“The Old World has a huge diversity of wine grapes — there are overplanted 1,000 varieties — and some of them are better adapted to hotter climates and have higher drought tolerance than the 12 varieties now making up over 80 per cent of the wine market in many countries,” Wolkovich said.

“We should be studying and exploring these varieties to prepare for climate change,” she added.

Unfortunately, Wolkovich said, convincing wine producers to try different grape varieties is difficult at best, and the reason often comes down to the current concept of terroir.

Terroir is the notion that a wine’s flavour is a reflection of where which and how the grapes were grown.

Thus, as currently understood, only certain traditional or existing varieties are part of each terroir, leaving little room for change.

The industry — both in the traditional winegrowing centres of Europe and around the world — faces hurdles when it comes to making changes, Wolkovich said.

In Europe, she said, growers have the advantage of tremendous diversity.

They have more than 1,000 grape varieties to choose from. Yet strict labelling laws have created restrictions on their ability to take advantage of this diversity.

For example, just three varieties of grapes can be labelled as Champagne or four for Burgundy.

Similar restrictions have been enacted in many European regions – all of which force growers to focus on a small handful of grape varieties.

“The more you are locked into what you have to grow, the less room you have to adapt to climate change,” Wolkovich said.

New World winegrowers, meanwhile, must grapple with the opposite problem — while there are few, if any, restrictions on which grape varieties may be grown in a given region, growers have little experience with the diverse — and potentially more climate change adaptable — varieties of grapes found in Europe, the study said.

Just 12 varieties account for more than 80 per cent of the grapes grown in Australian vineyards, Wolkovich said.

More than 75 per cent of all the grapes grown in China is Cabernet Sauvignon — and the chief reason why has to do with consumers.

“They have all the freedom in the world to import new varieties and think about how to make great wines from a grape variety you’ve never heard of, but they’re not doing it because the consumer hasn’t heard of it,” Wolkovich said. (IANS)