Saturday December 7, 2019

AI To Predict If Chemotherapy Useful For Lung Cancer Or Not

Artificial Intelligence to determine if chemotherapy is working in lung cancer

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Chemotherapy for lung cancer
Scientists will use AI to know if chemotherapy is useful to cure lung cancer. Pixabay

Scientists who have pioneered the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to predict whether chemotherapy will be successful, can now determine which lung-cancer patients will benefit from expensive immunotherapy.

Researchers used AI to find previously unseen changes in patterns in CT scans taken when the lung cancer is first diagnosed compared to scans taken after the first 2-3 cycles of immunotherapy treatment.

And, as with previous work, those changes have been discovered both inside–and outside — the tumour, a signature of the lab’s recent research.

“The research really seems to be reflecting something about the very biology of the disease, about which is the more aggressive phenotype, and that’s information oncologists do not currently have,” said Anant Madabhushi, whose Center for Computational Imaging and Personalized Diagnostics (CCIPD) has become a global leader in the detection, diagnosis and characterization of various cancers by using AI.

Currently, only about 20 per cent of all cancer patients will actually benefit from immunotherapy, a treatment that differs from chemotherapy in that it uses drugs to help your immune system fight cancer, while chemotherapy uses drugs to directly kill cancer cells.

Chemotherapy and immunotherapy
Only about 20 per cent of all cancer patients will actually benefit from immunotherapy, a treatment that differs from chemotherapy. Wikimedia Commons

Madabhushi said the recent work by his lab would help oncologists know which patients would actually benefit from the therapy, and who would not.

“Even though immunotherapy has changed the entire ecosystem of cancer, it also remains extremely expensive — about $200,000 per patient, per year,” Madabhushi said.

“That’s part of the financial toxicity that comes along with cancer and results in about 42 per cent of all new diagnosed cancer patients losing their life savings within a year of diagnosis”.

The new research, led by co-authors Mohammadhadi Khorrami and Prateek Prasanna, along with Madabhushi and 10 other collaborators from six different institutions was published in the journal Cancer Immunology Research.

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Prasanna said the study also showed that the results were consistent across scans of patients treated at two different sites and with three different types of immunotherapy agents.

“This is a demonstration of the fundamental value of the programme, that our machine-learning model could predict response in patients treated with different immune checkpoint inhibitors,” he added. (IANS)

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One-Third Patients Diagnosed with Lung Cancer Have Depression

One-third of lung cancer patients have depression says study

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Depression- lung cancer
Studies have found that About one-third of patients newly diagnosed with the most common form of lung cancer show signs of depression. Lifetime Stock

About one-third of patients newly diagnosed with the most common form of lung cancer have moderate to severe symptoms of depression, a new study suggests.

For many of these patients — particularly those with severe symptoms — depression occurs in a toxic blend of high levels of anxiety, traumatic stress, impaired day-to-day functioning and significant pain and other physical symptoms, findings published in the journal Lung Cancer showed.

“The results suggest doctors need to screen lung cancer patients for depression and then act to refer patients for care,” said study lead author Barbara Andersen from the Ohio State University in the US.

“Some oncologists may have a mindset that ‘of course, you’re depressed, you have lung cancer.’ This may show an under-appreciation of the breadth of depressive symptoms and other difficulties which accompany it,” Andersen said.

Depression
In such patients, depression occurs in a toxic blend of high levels of anxiety and traumatic stress. Lifetime Stock

Patients with moderate or severe depressive symptoms are more likely to have lower quality of life and worse disease outcomes compared to those also diagnosed with lung cancer but with mild or no depressive symptoms.

According to the researchers, data came from 186 patients at one cancer hospital who had been recently diagnosed with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer, which accounts for 85 per cent of all lung cancer cases.

Patients completed a telephone survey measuring psychological and physical symptoms, stress and day-to-day functioning.

Results showed that eight per cent of the patients scored at the severe depressive symptom level and 28 per cent had moderate depressive symptoms.

Nearly all (93 per cent) of the patients with severe depression said the depressive symptoms made it difficult to do their work, take care of things at home and get along with other people.

Compared to other cancer patients, those with high levels of depressive symptoms were much more likely to report severe physical symptoms, including 73 per cent who said they experienced ‘quite a bit’ or ‘very much’ pain.

Depression in patients
Patients with moderate or severe level of depression are more likely to have lower quality of life. Lifetime Stock

Every one of the patients with severe depressive symptoms said they had severe or moderate issues functioning with their usual activities such as work, study, housework and family or leisure activities.

In general, those with moderate depressive symptoms saw negative effects that were somewhat less — but still significant — than those with severe symptoms, the study found.

But there were two striking differences between the groups.

One was in the severity of generalised anxiety disorder (or GAD) symptoms, the most common anxiety disorder.

About 11 per cent of those with moderate depressive symptoms had moderate to severe GAD, compared to 73 per cent of patients with severe depressive symptoms.

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Second, many fewer of the patients with moderate depressive symptoms had impairments in self care (eight per cent versus 33 per cent in those with severe depressive symptoms), mobility (33 per cent versus 73 per cent) and usual activities (38 per cent versus 100 per cent). (IANS)