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Researchers Develop AI-driven System to Curb ‘Deepfake’ Videos

Roy-Chowdhury, however, thinks we still have a long way to go before automated tools can detect “deepfake” videos in the wild

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Artificial Intelligence Bot
Artificial Intelligence Bot. Pixabay

At a time when “deepfake” videos become a new threat to users’ privacy, a team of Indian-origin researchers has developed Artificial Intelligence (AI)-driven deep neural network that can identify manipulated images at the pixel level with high precision.

Realistic videos that map the facial expressions of one person onto those of another — known as “deepfakes”, present a formidable political weapon in the hands of nation-state bad actors.

Led by Amit Roy-Chowdhury, professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of California, Riverside, the team is currently working on still images but this can help them detect “deepfake” videos.

“We trained the system to distinguish between manipulated and nonmanipulated images and now if you give it a new image, it is able to provide a probability that that image is manipulated or not, and to localize the region of the image where the manipulation occurred,” said Roy-Chowdhury.

A deep neural network is what AI researchers call computer systems that have been trained to do specific tasks, in this case, recognize altered images.

These networks are organized in connected layers; “architecture” refers to the number of layers and structure of the connections between them.

While this might fool the naked eye, when examined pixel by pixel, the boundaries of the inserted object are different.

For example, they are often smoother than the natural objects.

artificial intelligence, nobel prize
“Artificial intelligence is now one of the fastest-growing areas in all of science and one of the most talked-about topics in society.” VOA

By detecting boundaries of inserted and removed objects, a computer should be able to identify altered images.

The researchers tested the neural network with a set of images it had never seen before, and it detected the altered ones most of the time. It even spotted the manipulated region.

“If you can understand the characteristics in a still image, in a video it’s basically just putting still images together one after another,” explained Roy-Chowdhury in a paper published in the journal IEEE Transactions on Image Processing.

“The more fundamental challenge is probably figuring out whether a frame in a video is manipulated or not”.

Also Read: TikTok Testing New Features Inspired by Instagram

Even a single manipulated frame would raise a red flag.

Roy-Chowdhury, however, thinks we still have a long way to go before automated tools can detect “deepfake” videos in the wild.

“This is kind of a cat and mouse game. This whole area of cybersecurity is in some ways trying to find better defense mechanisms, but then the attacker also finds better mechanisms.” (IANS)

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Researchers Develop Machine Keeping Human Livers Alive For a Week Outside Body

The next step will be to use these organs for transplantation. The proposed technology opens a large avenue for many applications offering a new life for many patients with end stage liver disease or cancer

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The study shows that six of ten perfused poor-quality human livers, declined for transplantation by all centres in Europe, recovered to full function within one week of perfusion on the machine. Pixabay

Researchers have developed a machine that repairs injured human livers and keeps them alive outside the body for one week.

According to the study, published in the journal Nature Biotechnology, this breakthrough may increase the number of available organs for transplantation saving many lives of patients with severe liver diseases or cancer.

“The success of this unique perfusion system — developed over a four-year period by a group of surgeons, biologists and engineers — paves the way for many new applications in transplantation and cancer medicine helping patients with no liver grafts available,” said study researcher Pierre-Alain Clavi from the University Hospital Zurich in Switzerland.

Until now, livers could be stored safely outside the body for only a few hours. With the novel perfusion technology, livers — and even injured livers — can now be kept alive outside of the body for an entire week.

This is a major breakthrough in the transplantation medicine, which may increase the number of available organs for transplantation and save many lives of patients suffering from severe liver diseases or a variety of cancers.

Injured cadaveric livers, initially not suitable for use in transplantation, may regain full function while perfused in the new machine for several days.

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According to the study, published in the journal Nature Biotechnology, this breakthrough may increase the number of available organs for transplantation saving many lives of patients with severe liver diseases or cancer. Pixabay

According to the researchers, the basis for this technology is a complex perfusion system, mimicking most core body functions close to physiology.

The Liver4Life project was developed under the umbrella of Wyss Zurich institute, which brought together the highly specialised technical and biomedical knowledge of experts from the University Hospital Zurich.

“The biggest challenge in the initial phase of our project was to find a common language that would allow communication between the clinicians and engineers,” said researcher Philipp Rudolf von Rohr.

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The study shows that six of ten perfused poor-quality human livers, declined for transplantation by all centres in Europe, recovered to full function within one week of perfusion on the machine.

The next step will be to use these organs for transplantation. The proposed technology opens a large avenue for many applications offering a new life for many patients with end stage liver disease or cancer. (IANS)