Sunday August 25, 2019

AI Reveals New Breast Cancer Types that Respond Differently to Treatment

According to researchers, two of them are more likely to respond to immunotherapy, one was more likely to relapse

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IVF method
However, before starting the treatment for cancer Radhika had her ovaries frozen, said Dr Mandavi Rai, IVF expert at Indira IVF Hospital, here, who treated her. Pixabay

Using artificial intelligence (AI), researchers have distinguished five types of breast cancer, which were earlier lumped into one.

Published in the NPJ Breast Cancer journal, researchers, including one of Indian-origin, applied AI and machine learning (ML) to gene sequences and molecular data from breast tumours, to reveal crucial differences among these cancer types.

According to researchers, two of them are more likely to respond to immunotherapy, one was more likely to relapse on tamoxifen. “We are at the cusp of a revolution in healthcare as we get to grips with the possibilities AI and ML can open up,” said study leader author Anguraj Sadanandam from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), London.

“Our study has shown that AI can recognise patterns in breast cancer that are beyond the limit of the human eye, and to point us to new avenues of treatment among those who have stopped responding to standard hormone therapies,” Sadanandam said.

AI, Breast Cancer, Treatment
Using artificial intelligence (AI), researchers have distinguished five types of breast cancer, which were earlier lumped into one. Pixabay

The majority of breast cancers develop in the inner cells that line the mammary ducts and are “fed” by oestrogen or progesterone. These are classed as ‘luminal A’ tumours and often have the best cure rates.

However, patients within the group respond differently to standard treatments, like tamoxifen, or new treatments — needed if patients relapse — such as immunotherapy.

The researchers applied the AI-trained computer software to a vast array of data available on the genetics, molecular and cellular make-up of primary ‘luminal A’ breast tumours, along with data on patient survival.

Once trained, the AI was able to identify five different types of disease with particular patterns of response to treatment.

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Women with a cancer type labelled ‘inflammatory’ had immune cells present in their tumours and high levels of a protein called PD-L1, suggesting they were likely to respond to immunotherapies.

Another group of patients had ‘triple negative’ tumours, which don’t respond to standard hormone treatments but various indicators suggest they might also respond to immunotherapy.

Patients with tumours that contained a specific change in chromosome 8 had worse survival than other groups when treated with tamoxifen and tended to relapse much earlier. These patients may benefit from an additional or new treatment to delay or prevent late relapse.

The markers identified in the study don’t challenge the overall classification of breast cancer, but find additional differences within the current sub-divisions of the disease, with important implications for treatment. (IANS)

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Huawei To Launch Kirin 990 On September 6

Huawei Kirin 990 Warm-up teaser video released on YouTube

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huawei Kirin 990
The Kirin 990 will provide 20 per cent greater transistor density. Pixabay

Chinese smartphone manufacturer Huawei confirmed that its latest in-house Huawei Kirin 990 chipset would be announced at its event on September 6.

The Kirin 990 would be produced on TSMC’s 7nm EUV process which will provide 20 per cent greater transistor density and in turn increased power efficiency, news portal GSMArena reported on Friday.

The company officially posted “Huawei Kirin 990 Warm-up” teaser video on YouTube which details the chipset would come with 5G capabilities.

Huawei Kirin 990
Latest in-house Kirin 990 chipset would be announced at its event on September 6. Pixabay

The company recently launched the world’s most powerful Artificial Intelligence (AI) processor — the Ascend 910 — along with an all-scenario AI computing framework — MindSpore.

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The Ascend 910 is a new AI processor that belongs to the company’s series of Ascend-Max chipsets. (IANS)