Thursday April 9, 2020

This AI Tool Can Predict Mortality Of Heart Failure Patients

Researchers develop a tool that can predict mortality of heart failure patients

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This artificial intelligence (AI) tool can predict life expectancy in heart failure patients. Pixabay

Researchers have developed an artificial intelligence (AI) tool to predict life expectancy in heart failure patients.

The machine learning algorithm based on de-identified electronic health, records data of 5,822 hospitalised or ambulatory patients with heart failure at UC San Diego Health in the US.

“We wanted to develop a tool that predicted life expectancy in heart failure patients, there are apps where algorithms are finding out all kinds of things, like products you want to purchase,” said Avi Yagil, Professor at University of California.

“We needed a similar tool to make medical decisions. Predicting mortality is important in patients with heart failure. Current strategies for predicting risk, however, are only modestly successful and can be subjective,” Yagil added.

From this model, a risk score was derived that determined low and high risk of death by identifying eight readily available variables collected for the majority of patients with heart failure:Diastolic blood pressure, Creatinine, Blood urea nitrogen, White blood cell count, Platelets, Albumin and Red blood cell distribution.

Yagil said the newly developed model was able to accurately predict life expectancy 88 per cent of the time and performed substantially better than other popular published models.

“This tool gives us insight, for example, on the probability that a given patient will die from heart failure in the next three months or a year,” said researcher Eric Adler.

Heart failure patients
The mortality of a heart failure patient can be predicted. Pixabay

“This is incredibly valuable. It allows us to make informed decisions based on a proven methodology and not have to look into a crystal ball,” he added.

The tool was additionally tested using de-identified patient data from the University of California San Francisco and a data base derived from 11 European medical centers.

“It was successful in those cohorts as well,” said Yagil.

“Being able to repurpose our findings in independent populations is of utmost importance, thus validating our methodology and its results,” Yagil added.

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Researchers said the partnership between physicists and cardiologists was critical to developing a reliable tool and extensive knowledge and experiences from both sides proved synergetic.

The study was published in the European Journal of Heart Failure. (IANS)

Next Story

Bedroom Air Filters Can improve Breathing in Asthmatic Children: Study

For the results, the researchers conducted the double-blind crossover study in a Shanghai suburb during a period of moderately high PM2.5 pollution in 2017

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It's probable that if children use the filters on an ongoing daily basis in their bedroom, they will see continued benefits. Pixabay

Using a bedroom air filter that traps fine particles of pollution with diameters smaller than 2.5 micrometres can significantly improve breathing in asthmatic children, according to a new study.

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a ubiquitous air pollutant originating from fossil fuel emissions, wildfires and other biomass burning, industrial sources, and gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles. Thirty times smaller in diameter than a human hair, the particles are easily inhaled and can penetrate deep into the small, or lower, airways where they can trigger or exacerbate asthma symptoms. Inhalers don’t help since they are only designed to open upper airways.

The findings, published in the journal JAMA Pediatrics, documented physiological improvements occur in the child’s airways when air filters are in use, and it suggests that with consistent use, the filters may help prevent, not just alleviate asthmatic flare-ups.

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“Our results show that using an air purifier to reduce the exposure of lower airways to pollutants could help asthmatic children breathe easier without those costly drugs,” said study researcher Junfeng Zhang from Duke University in the US.

For the results, the researchers conducted the double-blind crossover study in a Shanghai suburb during a period of moderately high PM2.5 pollution in 2017. They gave 43 children with mild to moderate asthma two air filters to use in their bedrooms. One was a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter capable of removing PM2.5; the other was a sham filter.

Air Purifiers
Using a bedroom air filter that traps fine particles of pollution with diameters smaller than 2.5 micrometres can significantly improve breathing in asthmatic children, according to a new study. Wikimedia Commons

Each filter was used for two weeks in random order with a two-week interval in between. Neither the children nor their families knew which filter was which. “Results showed that PM2.5 concentrations inside the children’s bedrooms were a third to two-thirds lower when the real air filters were in use than when the sham ones were being used,” said researcher Michael H Bergin.

This drop coincided with significant improvements in how easily air flowed in and out of the children’s small airways and lungs, Bergin said. These improvements included a 24 per cent average reduction in total airway resistance, a 43.5 per cent average reduction in small airway resistance, a 73.1 per cent average increase in airway elasticity, and a 27.6 per cent average reduction in exhaled nitric oxide, a biomarker of lung inflammation.

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Although the benefits lasted only as long as the real air filters were in use, “it’s probable that if children use the filters on an ongoing daily basis they will see continued benefits,” Zhang said. (IANS)