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Ajanta and Ellora caves cut out from rock

Located in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, the Ajanta caves are a remarkable example of Buddhist history. A series of 30 caves cut out of the rocks include paintings and sculptures that belong to medieval Buddhism, representing the mastery they had around the 2nd century B.C.

Temples cuts out of rock Image source: wikimedia commons



The caves are divided according to when they were possibly made. Some of the caves belong to the Satavahana Dynasty. They bear murals that depict the Jataka tales. According to some historians, some of these art works were made during the Mauryan empire, and some were made during the Gupta empire. The second series of caves are believed to belong to the Vakataka Dynasty, commissioned by Emperor Harisena. They bear arts that uphold the Mahayana tenet of Buddhism.

Murals engraved on the walls of the caves Image source: wikimedia commons


For a long time, these caves were covered by forests and were known only to the locals. During colonial rule, an officer named John Smith discovered these caves while hunting. He is believed to have vandalized these caves as his name appears on the entrance of one of them. After this, efforts were made to regain knowledge of these caves.

Visitors are allowed to come and view the cave paintings Image source: wikimedia commons


Ajanta caves fell under the jurisdiction of the princely state of Hyderabad, and the Nizam commissioned restoration work on these paintings and sculptures. In 1983, these caves, along with the neighbouring Ellora caves were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. People visit both these caves often, and overcrowding is believed to damage the paintings to some extent.

Keywords: Ajanta, Ellora, Buddhism, Dynasty, Maharashtra


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R. K. Narayan, one of the most well-known and popular writers within India and outside India is the creator of this town and the occurrences of this town. The stories follow the characters Swami and his friends through their everyday lives. Be it the story of fake astrologers who scam and loot the people by his cleverness, or the story of a blind beggar and his dog where the money blinded the man with greed; each story has a lesson to learn, morals and values hidden in it. As the stories are simple, easy to understand yet heart-touching it makes it easy for the kids to connect with each character and imagine the story as if the reader themselves were the protagonist of the story. In simple words, we can say that R.K. Narayan simply told stories of ordinary people trying to live their simple lives in a changing world.

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Hugs, caress scenes, extramarital affairs, vulgar and bold dressing, bed scenes and intimacy of married couples are being glamourised in utter disregard to Islamic teachings and culture of Pakistani society," PEMRA stated

The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) has directed Pak TV channels to stop airing what it calls indecency and intimacy in dramas, Samaa TV reported.

A notification issued by the authority states that it has been receiving numerous complaints from viewers who believe that the content being depicted in dramas does not represent the "true picture of Pakistani society".

"PEMRA finally got something right: Intimacy and affection between married couples isn't 'true depiction of Pakistani society and must not be 'glamourized'. Our 'culture' is control, abuse, and violence, which we must jealously guard against the imposition of such alien values," said Reema Omer, Legal Advisor, South Asia, International Commission of Jurists.

"Hugs, caress scenes, extramarital affairs, vulgar and bold dressing, bed scenes and intimacy of married couples are being glamourized in utter disregard to Islamic teachings and culture of Pakistani society," PEMRA stated, as per the report.

The authority added that it has directed channels time and again to review content with "indecent dressing, controversial and objectionable plots, bed scenes and unnecessary detailing of events".

Most complaints received by the PEMRA Call Centre during September concern drama serial "Juda Huay Kuch is Tarah", which created quite a storm on social media for showing an unwitting married couple as foster siblings in a teaser for an upcoming episode. However, it only turned out to be a family scheme after the full episode aired, but by that time criticism had mounted on HUM TV for using the themes of incest to drive the plot, the report said. (IANS/JB)

Keywords: Pakistan, Islam, Serials, Dramas, Culture, Teachings.