Tuesday July 23, 2019

An active mind keeps Alzheimer away: Indian origin researcher

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New York: Being indulged in the activities that keep mind stimulating and active such as reading books and magazines, playing games and using computers in the middle age can help stopping symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease according to the study, done by Indian origin researcher.

“The takeaway message for the general public is that keeping your mind active is very important in delaying symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease,” said study author Prashanthi Vemuri, dementia researcher at Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, US.

The findings were published in the online edition of the journal Neurology.

People who are carriers of a gene linked to Alzheimer’s, called APOE4, who had at least 14 years of education and kept mentally active in middle age had lower levels of proteins called amyloid plaques.

The proteins can build up in brain tissue and lead to Alzheimer’s disease. People with the gene and a high level of education but did not keep mentally active in middle age had higher levels of amyloid plaques, the study said.

For the study, researchers evaluated 393 people without dementia who were part of the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Of those, 53 had mild cognitive impairment.

All were 70 years of age or older. They were divided into two groups: those with more than 14 years of education and those with less.

Then, researchers used MRI and positron emission tomography scans to look for biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease and questionnaires to evaluate weekly intellectual and physical activity in middle age.

“When we looked specifically at the level of lifetime learning, we found that carriers of the APOE4 gene who had higher education and continued to learn through middle age had fewer amyloid deposition on imaging when compared to those who did not continue with intellectual activity in middle age,” Vemuri said.(IANS)(image-senior.in)

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Here’s Why Women are More Likely to Develop Alzheimer Diseases than Men

The new studies add more evidence and potential explanations for suspected variations between how men and women develop the disease

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FILE - Dr. William Burke goes over a PET brain scan, Aug. 14, 2018, at Banner Alzheimers Institute in Phoenix, Arizona. VOA

New research gives some biological clues to why women may be more likely than men to develop Alzheimer’s disease and how this most common form of dementia varies by sex.

At the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference in Los Angeles on Tuesday, scientists offered evidence that the disease may spread differently in the brains of women than in men. Other researchers showed that several newly identified genes seem related to the disease risk by sex.

Two-thirds of Alzheimer’s cases in the U.S. are in women and “it’s not just because we live longer,” said Maria Carrillo, the association’s chief science officer. There’s also “a biological underpinning” for sex differences in the disease, she said.

Some previous studies suggest that women at any age are more likely than men to develop Alzheimer’s. Scientists also know that a gene called APOE-4 seems to raise risk more for women than for men in certain age groups.

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Poor sleep can predict Alzheimer’s Risk in elderly. Pixabay

At the same time, women with the disease in its early stages may go undiagnosed because they tend to do better on verbal tests than men, which masks Alzheimer’s damage.  The new studies add more evidence and potential explanations for suspected variations between how men and women develop the disease.

Vanderbilt University researchers found differences in how tau, a protein that forms tangles that destroy nerve cells, spreads in the brains of women compared to men. Using scans on 301 people with normal thinking skills and 161 others with mild impairment, they mapped where tau was deposited and correlated it with nerve networks — highways that brain signals follow.

They found that tau networks in women with mild impairment were more diffuse and spread out than in men, suggesting that more areas of the brain were affected.

It’s long been known that women do better on tests of verbal memory — skills like recalling words and lists. University of California, San Diego, researchers found that women did better on these skills despite similar signs of early to moderate Alzheimer’s than men.

Using scans on more than 1,000 older adults, they found sex differences in how the brain uses sugar, its main energy source. Women metabolized sugar better, which may give them more ability to compensate for the damage from dementia and make them less likely to be diagnosed with it by tests that involve verbal skills.

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They found that tau networks in women with mild impairment were more diffuse and spread out than in men, suggesting that more areas of the brain were affected. Pixabay

“The female advantage might mask early signs of Alzheimer’s and delay diagnosis,” said study leader Erin Sundermann. “Women are able to sustain normal verbal performance longer,” partly because of better brain metabolism.

At the University of Miami, scientists analyzed genes in 30,000 people — half with Alzheimer’s, half without it — and found four that seem related to disease risk by sex. “One confers risk in females and not males and three confer risk in males but not females,” said one study leader, Eden Martin.

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Researchers don’t know yet exactly how these genes affect risk — or by how much. “Some of these look like they’re tied to the immune system and we know there are differences between males and females” in how that works, said another study leader, Brian Kunkle.

Seven other genes seem to have different effect on risks in men versus women. The researchers have a National Institute on Aging grant to do an international study on nearly 100,000 people to try to validate and extend the results. (VOA)