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Ancient India Maritime History: Trade Links With Europe and Southeast Asian Nations

Excavations Provide Evidence About Ports that Played a Major Role in Overseas Trade in Past

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Ancient India maritime route
Ancient Indo-Oman maritime trade route. Wikimedia
  • The maritime history begins from the 3CE when the Indus Valley people initiated trading contact with Mesopotamia
  • Tamil Nadu being a coastal state had more than 16 ports across Chennai which had trade links with China, Egypt, parts of Europe
  • Presently in Tamil Nadu, a deep-sea port has been proposed in Enayam which would emerge as a major port for Indian cargo to be exported

June 27, 2017:

Before the incipience of air transport, mankind was dependent on sea links for transportation and trading of goods between continents. Sea was the major form of transportation in the past and even though people still use the sea for transport, most of the trading is now usually done through the air transport.

As we look back in time, the ports were the busiest place to be, because sailors were the only people who could get you and your goods across countries. In India too, we had ports down on the southern region so that we could access trade with all over Europe and Middle East countries.

The Ancient India maritime history begins from the 3CE when the Indus Valley people initiated trading contact with Mesopotamia. Indian Silk was one of the most traded product but later on, Indian spices took hold of most of the trading to the West surpassing Silk.

Tamil Nadu being the coastal state had more than 16 ports across Chennai and Tirunelveli which had trade links with China, Egypt, parts of Europe and South-east Asian countries. Archaeologists say ancient Tamil literature and excavations provide evidence about the existence of such ports that played a major role in overseas trade in the past.

C Santhalingam, the secretary of Pandya Nadu Centre for Historical Research told that these sea routes in Tamil Nadu can be traced to the Sangam Period which was from (3CE BC to 3CE AC) and said, “The historical coastal town of Kaveripoompattinam (Poompuhar in Nagapattinam district) recorded import of horses from Arab countries and finished goods from Indonesia and Sri Lanka. The port was also a major centre for the export of spices from South India.

Ancient port was built differently from the modern ports which are at the coastline as they were situated over the river mouths because the transporting ships in the past were not as big as the ones now, so the river mouths were the right places for safe docking of the ships.

Presently in Tamil Nadu, a deep-sea port has been proposed in Enayam in Kanyakumari district which would emerge as a major port for Indian cargo to be exported. The proposed budget for this port is 27,570 crore and the port would act as a hub for the global east-west trade route and also reduce the logistics cost for Indian traders dependent on transhipment in Colombo and Singapore giving rise to maritime link jobs.

prepared by Sumit Balodi of NewsGram. Twitter: @sumit_balodi

  • Jai Rajkumar

    BEFORE THAT TAMILS SAILED ALL AROUND THE WORLD. TAMILS ARE THE FIRST SAILORS O THE WORLD

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Explore the Most Visited Cities of Romania

There are even reports of human and extraterrestrial meetings in the Hoia-Baciu forest. Others have also claimed the presence of a monster in the nearby Lake Tarnita.

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Romania
The official language of the country is Romanian while Albanian and Armenian are some of the recognized regional languages.

Romania is a sovereign country in southeastern Europe that is experiencing an increasing trend in tourism. Bucharest is the capital and largest city in the country with the greatest number of visitors annually. The official language of the country is Romanian while Albanian and Armenian are some of the recognized regional languages.

The Romans are the predominant ethnic group and make up 88.9% of the total population. By 2011, the country was very urbanized with 54% of the population living in urban areas, but most moved to the countryside. In this article, we will discuss some of the major cities in Romania that you can visit while exploring this historic place.

Bucharest

Bucharest
At present, the city has an estimated population of 1.8 million inhabitants. The quality of life in Bucharest is not appealing.

Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is the country’s capital, culture, industry and financial center. The city has increasingly become popular among international visitors for low prices and amazing Bucharest bachelor weekend parties. Some of the old buildings in the city center were severely damaged by war, earthquakes and Nicolae Ceausescu’s systemization program. It has been an economic and industrial boom in the city in the past.

At present, the city has an estimated population of 1.8 million inhabitants. The quality of life in Bucharest is not appealing. Living conditions have deteriorated over time and ranked 108th in 2009 in 235 cities. Notable landmarks in the city include; Triumphal arch, carousel bookstore, and Ion Luca Carnegie charter.

Constanta

tourism
The most important economic activities are tourism, industrialization, and fishing. In the first half of 2008, 3,144 companies were established in the city.

Constanta is the oldest city inhabited in the country after being formed in 600 BC. It has a population of 283,872 people making it the fifth largest city in the country by population. Constanta is a coastal city and receives a large number of tourists annually. In the 1930s during the inter-war, the city was the country’s commercial hub.

Like many coastal cities, Constanta is experiencing one of the warmest temperatures in the country. The most important economic activities are tourism, industrialization, and fishing. In the first half of 2008, 3,144 companies were established in the city. The most notable landmarks in the city are; the genuine lighthouse, the Carol 1 mosque, the house with lions, the cathedral of saints and the ottoman hunting mosque.

Cluj-Napoca

Cluj
The state’s Matthias Corvinus and Central Park fountain are some of the city’s attractions. There are a large number of visitors in the city with a majority of those coming on a day visit.

Ranking third among the largest cities in Romania, called Cluj-Napoca commonly known as Cluj. It was founded in 1213 and is the second most popular city in the country. The city is surrounded by forests and grasslands with rare species such as a Venus slipper. There are animals such as bears, mammals, foxes, rabbits, and squirrels in the Faget and Hoia nearby forests.

There are even reports of human and extraterrestrial meetings in the Hoia-Baciu forest. Others have also claimed the presence of a monster in the nearby Lake Tarnita. There are many large castles in the surrounding countryside surrounded by medieval families living in the city. The state’s Matthias Corvinus and Central Park fountain are some of the city’s attractions. There are a large number of visitors in the city with a majority of those coming on a day visit.

Iași

Romania
The fourth largest city in Romania is home to some of the oldest churches and monasteries dating back more than five hundred years ago.

This city is one of the cultural capitals of Romania and is a symbol of Romanian history. It is home to the country’s oldest university and the first technical school. It is an important education and research center in Romania and holds more than 60,000 students in five public universities.

Also Read: Russian Hackers Targeting European Embassies: Report

The fourth largest city in Romania is home to some of the oldest churches and monasteries dating back more than five hundred years ago. Significant buildings in the city include; Central Hall Square, Cuza Place, Dosoftei House, and Razvan Palace.