Sunday April 22, 2018
Home India Are alternati...

Are alternative livelihood sources killing the fragile Sunderbans?

0
//
75
Republish
Reprint

Bee_pollinating_Aquilegia_vulgaris

Kolkata:  Scientists of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) have recently discovered something unusual in the activity of insects that flit around the mangrove plants collecting pollen grains and nectar from flowers. These insects  unknowingly spread the pollen around, helping the plant species to reproduce (a process called pollination).

“In the Bali Island of the Indian Sunderbans in West Bengal, domestic bees from the bee boxes are not allowing wild insect pollinators to sit on the flowers of some species because of their aggression and large numbers. But in other islands, in the same species, we can see the wild pollinators visiting,” Bulganin Mitra, an entomologist with ZSI, told IANS.

This could indicate that means of local livelihoods, such as bee-keeping, may be “restricting” the natural work of these pollinators that have a role in the proliferation of the mangrove species in the Sunderbans, Mitra added.

Sunderbans, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is known for its exceptional biodiversity in flora and fauna with a staggering 334 plant species and 693 species of wildlife, which include 49 mammals, 59 reptiles, eight amphibians, 210 white fishe, 24 shrimps, 14 crabs and 43 mollusks.

It is also home to the majestic Royal Bengal Tiger and reports of the endangered species attacking humans while fishing and hunting are common.

The livelihood issues in the Sunderbans are also linked to climate change with increasing sea-levels and salinity depriving locals of means of sustaining themselves.

At the core of sustainability, are the declining mangrove species (such as the Sundari trees) which are crucial to support livelihoods, as they provide carbon sinks and act as a buffer against climate change.

To shed light on protection strategies with a holistic approach, Mitra and a team of ZSI scientists are investigating the role of insect pollinators on the conservation of the major mangrove species of the Sunderbans, a project of the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate change.

Through observations carried out during the day as well as in the night on eight mangrove species (of the total 24) across five islands in the Indian Sunderbans, experts “unexpectedly” found that overall, more species of flies were visiting the plants instead of bees, which are known to be one of the most common insect pollinators.

“In Bali Island, however, where bee boxes are placed as a source of alternative livelihood, the wild insect pollinators are kept at bay. But one can’t simply ask the locals to remove the bee boxes because that would put them in harm’s way (tiger attacks and the like) as they would have to resort to other means of livelihood in another part of the island,” Mitra explained.

This intricate relationship between man and animal in the Sunderbans calls for discussions with all the stakeholders, according to ZSI director K. Venkataraman.

“There should be awareness initiated among the public and there should be co-management by the public and the government. There is a lot of research which is needed to conserve the Sunderbans and studies have to be taken up by various departments. Research institutions should give priority to other groups of animals and not just the tiger alone,” Venkataraman told IANS.

-IANS

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2015 NewsGram

Next Story

70 years after Independence power reaches Elephanta Isle near Mumbai

An unseasonal 'Diwali' has suddenly been ushered on the island, which used to be plunged into darkness after dusk in the absence of electricity at the three villages

0
//
34
The power connection is also expected to speed up work on the proposed 8-km long ropeway connecting Mumbai directly with Elephanta Island running above the Arabian Sea
The power connection is also expected to speed up work on the proposed 8-km long ropeway connecting Mumbai directly with Elephanta Island running above the Arabian Sea. Wikimedia Commons
* Elephanta Caves is a UNESCO World Heritage site
* An unseasonal ‘Diwali’ has suddenly been ushered on the island
* The official is hopeful that now, the Islanders can get better educational institutions, boost tourism
Seventy years after Independence, a 7.5-km long undersea cable has finally brought electricity to the world-famous Gharapuri Isle, which houses the UNESCO World Heritage site Elephanta Caves, about 10-km from Mumbai, a top official said here on Thursday.
The project to electrify the island, thronged daily by thousands of Indian and foreign tourists, has cost a total of Rs 25 crore and was completed in 15 months, said Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co. Ltd. Regional Director Satish Karape.
“This is India’s longest undersea power cable which took around three months to lay. Plus, we have installed a transformer in each of the three villages, six streetlight towers each 13-metre tall with six powerful LED bulbs and provided individual power meter connections to 200 domestic and a few commercial consumers. Intensive testing over past three days has been successful,” Karape told IANS.
A function will be held at the island later in the day when renowned social reformer Appasaheb Dharmadhikari will formally ‘switch on’ the power supply in the presence of Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis, his ministers Chandrashekhar Bawankule, Jaykumar Raval, Ravindra, and other dignitaries.
Inhabited since the 2nd Century BC, the island has seven big and small rock-cut caves temples carved between 5th-6th Centuries AD.
Inhabited since the 2nd Century BC, the island has seven big and small rock-cut caves temples carved between 5th-6th Centuries AD. Wikimedia Commons
Karape said that of the total project cost, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority gave Rs 18.50 crore while the rest had been borne from the MSEDCL’s own resources.
The 22-KV cable has four lines, including one exclusive standby line, to ensure 24×7 high-quality power to the Islanders with sufficient excess capacity to take care of future requirements for more than 30 years, he explained.
An unseasonal ‘Diwali’ has suddenly been ushered on the island, which used to be plunged into darkness after dusk in the absence of electricity at the three villages — Raj Bander, Mora Bander and Shet Bander — housing around 1,200 people, mostly engaged in fishing, farming, boat-repairs and tourism-related activities.
Since the past few years, however, the villagers managed with just three hours electricity courtesy power generators provided by the state government, but these were expensive and unreliable.
The previous Congress-Nationalist Congress Party regime had initiated the proposal, but it fell through as the tender attracted a single bid, and later the Bharatiya Janata Party-Shiv Sena government revived the proposal almost two years ago.
The 22-KV cable has been connected directly with the MSEDCL’s Olwa sub-station, Panvel Division in Raigad on the mainland, Karape said.
Since a small dam exists on this 16-sq km island, a water filtration plant can be set up to provide safe and clean drinking water to the locals and tourists, who now rely on bottled mineral water.
Since a small dam exists on this 16-sq km island, a water filtration plant can be set up to provide safe and clean drinking water to the locals and tourists, who now rely on bottled mineral water. Wikimedia Commons
The official is hopeful that now, the Islanders can get better educational institutions, boost tourism — probably with the overnight stay, subject to other governmental clearances — install a lighthouse on the isle’s hilltop, and even power the Elephanta Caves if the Archaeological Survey of India permits.
Since a small dam exists on this 16-sq km island, a water filtration plant can be set up to provide safe and clean drinking water to the locals and tourists, who now rely on bottled mineral water.
The power connection is also expected to speed up work on the proposed 8-km long ropeway connecting Mumbai directly with Elephanta Island running above the Arabian Sea, planned by the Mumbai Port Trust (MbPT), and billed as a boon to nearly two million tourists who visit it annually.
Inhabited since the 2nd Century BC, the island has seven big and small rock-cut caves temples carved between 5th-6th Centuries AD. It was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987.
The island also has two large British-era canons atop the hill.
Presently, the thickly-forested island abounds in monkeys and other creatures, is accessible only by an hour-long voyage by motorboats and launches from Gateway of India or Raigad, with the compulsory return in the evening.