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Article 35-A proves to be a disappointment more than a protector of rights to Valmikis, Gorkhas, and Women of Jammu and Kashmir
- Article 35-A exists in the Constitution not as a part of the amendments’ list but as an appendix
- It allows J&K state legislature to define the term “permanent residents” and also to alter its definition
- Article 35-A was enacted to safeguard the rights of J&K’s permanent residents but Valmikis, Gorkhas, and women are being discriminated against
Jammu and Kashmir, August 12, 2017: Indian constitution’s Article 35-A empowers the state legislature of Jammu and Kashmir to provide a definition of the state’s ‘permanent residents’ and provide them with special privileges and rights. It was incorporated in the Constitution by the then President of India on 14 May 1954 under an order known as the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order 1954.
Article 368 underlines that no Constitutional amendments can take place in the absence of a parliamentary procedure. Article 35-A was not presented before the Parliament. It exists as an appendix instead of the amendments’ list in the Constitution. Article 35-A instead of providing special rights and privileges and/or protecting permanent residents of J&K, it has discriminated against some. Women have suffered the worst are the women amongst the others who are discriminated against.
According to Article 35-A, the J&K state legislature can define “permanent residents” and also change its definition.
Till 2002, the female residents of J&K were being issued Permanent Resident Certificates (PRCs) with the tag ‘valid till marriage’ by the Revenue Department. In a case labeled Jammu and Kashmir Versus Dr. Sushila Sawhney and others, as per the majority opinion, the full bench of Jammu and Kashmir High Court it was decided that a permanent resident’s daughter getting married to a nonpermanent resident or an outsider will not let go of the prestige of Jammu and Kashmir’s permanent residence.
In spite of the clear judgment by the High Court and its legal position, a committee was made by the Revenue Department of the state in 2016 to solve an already settled matter. The government at the center was not allowed to intervene, due to Article 35-A.
Marriage with an outsider: If a woman from Jammu-Kashmir marries someone who is an outsider, she will not be permitted to reside in the state in any circumstance. If a man belonging to another state gets married to a woman in J&K, he is not qualified to receive a PRC, including any of the benefits associated with it.
This conveys he is not eligible to be given a government job, his children are not eligible to enroll in institutes and professional colleges run by the state, and he cannot buy land.
This indicates that in the situation of a woman marrying an outsider, she will be obliged to leave her state and reside somewhere else. Before such women had to let go of the prestige of a permanent resident and even her spouse and offsprings didn’t get PRC. However, this does not happen if the involved resident is male.
Valmiki Families: The number of Valmiki families sent to J&K from Punjab in 1957 for the work of safai karamcharis were 200. All these families were ready to be employed in J&K after it was promised to them that the clause of ‘permanent resident’ would be in their favor.
After five long decades, each family’s strength has grown and the employee numbers have gone up. Their plight, however, is that they will be regarded as J&K’s ‘permanent residents’ only if they work as safai karamcharis.
The offsprings of these families, who have been graduated, cannot give applications for government jobs. Even the literate youngsters belonging to their families can only work as safai karamcharis. The community that was allocated to safai karamcharis to reside in has not been standardized till now.
J&K’s Gorkhas: They were appointed to all the positions of Maharaja Ranjeet Singh’s army and after that Maharaja Gulab Singh’s. Their families resided in Jammu and Kashmir since 200 years and before, and are around 1 lakh in number. They are not given PRC on unreasonable grounds. The reason is Article 35-A which allows the state government to discriminate among the state’s permanent residents.
Now the question that arises is if Article 35-A was meant to safeguard the rights of Jammu and Kashmir’s permanent residents then why do Valmikis, Gorkhas, and women face discrimination?
If Article 35-A allows J&K’s government to be biased to the state’s permanent residents, then why shouldn’t it be repealed with immediate action? Such points need immediate attention to guard J&K’s permanent residents from further bias.
-prepared by Harsimran Kaur of NewsGram. Twitter Hkaur1025
As digital transformation enters top gear amid the pandemic, artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a solution to overcome language, literacy barrier in India, experts said here on Wednesday.
Speaking at a panel discussion titled 'Use of Emerging Technologies for Social Empowerment Blockchain, AR/VR, Drone, IoT, GIS' organised by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), experts highlighted the importance and role of emerging technologies in digital transformation.
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"AI has immense possibilities and huge potential. During the Covid-19 pandemic, when government officials were not available, we made chatbots using AI for anyone to procure the required information," said Dr Neeta Verma, DG, NIC. There are 20-30 crore people in India who either do not have smartphones or face language and literacy barriers to use the technology, according to Verma.
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Abhishek Singh, President and CEO, NeGD (National eGovernance Division) highlighted the importance and role of emerging technologies for digital transformational and effective implementation of Digital India initiatives for social benefit.
Professor Manindra Agrawal from department of computer science and engineering, IIT Kanpur talked about the common misconception that Blockchain is exclusively for cryptocurrency.
As digital transformation enters top gear amid the pandemic, artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a solution to overcome language, literacy barrier in India.Unsplash
"Blockchain technology provides the ability to create and maintain unalterable ledgers. There are a number of domains, especially when delivering services to citizens, where maintaining records that cannot be altered is of great importance. For example, land ownership records, database of criminals, and supply-chain logistics," he said.
The 75th 'Azadi Ka Digital Mahotsav' is a week-long celebration from November 29 - December 5. Meanwhile, Samsung India Electronics, the country's No 1 smartphones exporter, was awarded for outstanding contribution in promotion of electronics in the export performance category during one of the events at the Mahotsav. (IANS/SP)
(Keywords : Ai, language, barrier, India, experts, digital, pandemic, solution, technology, implementation.)
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Google-owned YouTube on Thursday revealed a list of top videos as well as creators for 2021 and gaming along with comedy videos that have topped the chart in India.
In 2021, gaming leveled up, emerging as a rich and diverse ground for storytelling and community building, with a notable presence across top creators, top breakout creators, top women breakout creators and even top YouTube Shorts creators.
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"The main idea behind coming up with a list of popular creators is to inspire new creators. YouTube has given a proper platform both small as well as big communities. With the expansion of regional languages, the platform is ready to cater the needs of every content creators as well as consumers," Satya Raghavan, Director of YouTube Content Partnerships, India, told IANS.
"Our viewers turned to YouTube to learn new skills, hone newfound passions, discover content to watch with friends and family, and foster a shared sense of community," he added.
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While Round2Hell's 40-minute long horror-comedy zombie apocalypse short film became the #1 trending video, comedy did just as well in short-form video.
Tamil sensation Enjoy Enjaami, set off a drumbeat of content inspired by the Tamil Hit reaction videos, cover songs including some in Hindi and Malayalam, animated re-creations, re-creations within FreeFire, make-up tutorials, and even a PSA by the Kerala Police! Our Top Shorts creator A2 Motivation emerged as the most famous videos on the platform.
"Our viewers turned to YouTube to learn new skills, hone newfound passions, discover content to watch with friends and family, and foster a shared sense of community," he added. | Unsplash
"2021 showed us that even in challenging times, the inventiveness and creativity of our ecosystem can bring help and hope to the lives of millions of Indians. It's time to celebrate the content and creators that made YouTube an indelible part of our popular culture, and in fact our lives," Raghavan added.
In addition, Bhuvan Bam (BB Ki Vines) web series, Dhindora, Telugu channels Filmymoji and Funmoji, The Viral Fever (TVF) web-show Aspirants, Dice Media's Operation MBBS and Clutch, Telugu shows like 30 weds 21 by Girl Formula and Surya featuring Shanmukh Jaswanth in the lead, emerged as some of the top shows this year on YouTube. (IANS/SP)
(Keywords : Google, YouTube, gaming, diverse, storytelling, community, building, skills, passions, creativity, ecosystem, challenging, Indians.)
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By N. Lothungbeni Humtsoe
There is nothing better than a healthy glowing. What people dont tell you is that make-up also looks better on healthy rejuvenated skin. A lot of focus is given to cleansing and moisturising, but face massage is equally important.
Massaging the face increases blood circulation and relaxes the skin, taking the stress and tiredness right out. Face massages can also help in collagen synthesis to ensure skin brightening and smoothening the fine lines. One should massage their face 2 to 3 times a week to get the desired results.
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Rachit Gupta, Director, OxyGlow Cosmetics Pvt. Ltd. shares, "Facial skin is more delicate than the skin on the rest of the body and demands a lot of attention and care. Hectic lifestyles make the facial skin lose the sheen and natural glow. The solution for common problems like patchy skin tone, dullness, acne, scars or spots, premature ageing, etc is to include face massages with natural gels in one's routine. Gels are recommended especially as they suit varied skin types and do not harm the skin. They lightly moisturise and bring back the shine of the face. Just 5 minutes of care can give wonderful results not just in terms of a healthier skin but as a great stress buster."
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What can a 5-minute massage do?
* By improving blood circulation gives a natural glow to the face
* Removes toxins by moving the lymphatic fluid
* Regular massages help in reducing fine lines and can keep wrinkles at bay
* Increases collagen production that helps in improving elasticity and preventing the skin from sagging, keeping it young
* Results in even and radiant skin tone, also help in reducing acne and scars
* Reduces stress not only in the muscles but also helps in relaxing mentally, leaving one's mood elevated
Use your fingers to massage the skin with gentle pressure only. Massage in a circular motion. | Unsplash
How to do it right?
* Wash your hands thoroughly
* Wash your face with water or a gentle face wash and pat dry
* Apply a natural face massage gel on the face
* Steam your face to help open up your pores
* Use your fingers to massage the skin with gentle pressure only. Massage in a circular motion. One can also use a roller
Things to keep in mind: Do not use a lot of pressure while massaging. Be careful and gentle around the eyes as the skin is very sensitive, use soft movement. Use slow and outward motion to massage your face. Move thoroughly and cover all areas from the forehead to the neck.
Choose natural gels for massage which contain aloe-vera and/or herbs or mint or rose. Gels provide light moisturizing and are not oily. They provide much-needed nourishment to the facial skin. They are versatile and suit dry skin types as much as oily skin. Most people have combination skin and are always concerned about which product to choose. In this case, one cannot go wrong with natural gels. Gels also help in healing and mending the skin due to their beneficial ingredients. (IANS/SP)
(Keywords : Rejuvenation, Facial Massage, Healthy, Glowing, Circulation, Natural Glow, Dullness, Acne, Collagen, Wrinkles, Sensitive, Nourishment, Beneficial, Aloe-vera)
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