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Artificial Intelligence to Play a Critical Role in Diagnosing Breast Cancer Quickly

"We had about 80 per cent accuracy rate. We will continue to refine the algorithm by using more real-world images as inputs,” Oberai said

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Cancer, Patients, Invasive
The treatments kill healthy cells as well as cancerous ones, and the side effects are legendary. Pixabay

Breast ultrasound elastography is an emerging imaging technique that provides information about a potential breast lesion and researchers have identified the critical role AI can play in making this technique more efficient and accurate.

Using more precise information about the characteristics of a cancerous versus non-cancerous breast lesion, this methodology using Artificial Intelligence (AI) has demonstrated more accuracy compared to traditional modes of imaging.

In the study published in the journal Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Indian-origin researchers Dhruv Patel and Assad Oberai from the University of Southern California showed that it is possible to train a machine to interpret real-world images using synthetic data and streamline the steps to diagnosis.

In the case of breast ultrasound elastography, once an image of the affected area is taken, it is analysed to determine displacements inside the tissue. Using this data and the physical laws of mechanics, the spatial distribution of mechanical properties, like its stiffness, is determined.

In the study, researchers sought to determine if they could skip the most complicated steps of this workflow.

Cancer
Cancer Ribbon. Pixabay

For this, the researchers used about 12,000 synthetic images to train their Machine Learning algorithm. This process was similar to how photo identification software works, i.e learning through repeated inputs on how to recognize a particular person in an image, or how our brain learns to classify a cat versus a dog.

Through enough examples, the algorithm was able to glean different features inherent to a benign tumour versus a malignant tumour and make the correct determination.

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The researchers achieved nearly 100 per cent classification accuracy on synthetic images. Once the algorithm was trained, they tested it on real-world images to determine how accurate it could be in providing a diagnosis, measuring these results against biopsy-confirmed diagnoses associated with these images.

“We had about 80 per cent accuracy rate. We will continue to refine the algorithm by using more real-world images as inputs,” Oberai said. (IANS)

Next Story

New Reusable Device Which can Help Women with Breast Cancer in Lower-Income Countries

Innovation in cancer care doesn't always mean that you have to create an entirely new treatment

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Breast Cancer, Device, Women
According to the study published in the journal PLOS One, the research team wanted to create a tissue-freezing tool that uses carbon dioxide. Pixabay

Researchers have developed a new reusable device which can help women with breast cancer in lower-income countries by using carbon dioxide, a widely available and affordable gas, to power a cancer tissue-freezing probe instead of industry-standard argon.

According to the study published in the journal PLOS One, the research team wanted to create a tissue-freezing tool that uses carbon dioxide, which is already widely available in most rural areas thanks to the popularity of carbonated drinks.

“Innovation in cancer care doesn’t always mean that you have to create an entirely new treatment. Sometimes it means radically innovating on proven therapies such that they’re redesigned to be accessible to the majority of the world’s population,” said the study’s first author Bailey Surtees from the Johns Hopkins University.

For the study, the research team tested their tool in three experiments to ensure it could remain cold enough in conditions similar to the human breast and successfully kill tumour tissues.

Breast Cancer, Device, Women
Researchers have developed a new reusable device which can help women with breast cancer in lower-income countries by using carbon dioxide. Pixabay

In the first experiment, the team used the tool on jars of ultrasound gel, which thermodynamically mimics human breast tissue, to determine whether it could successfully reach standard freezing temperatures killing tissues and form consistent iceballs.

In all the trials, the device formed large enough iceballs and reached temperatures below -40 degrees Celsius, which meets standard freezing temperatures for tissue death for similar devices in the United States.

For the second experiment, the team treated 9 rats with 10 mammary tumours. Afterwards, they looked at the tissues under a microscope and confirmed that the tool successfully killed 85 per cent or more tissues for all tumours.

Finally, the team tested the tool’s ability to reach temperatures cold enough for tissue destruction in the normal liver of a pig, which has a temperature similar to a human breast.

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The device was successfully able to stay cold enough during the entire experiment to kill the target tissue. (IANS)