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"Artificial intelligence is now one of the fastest-growing areas in all of science and one of the most talked-about topics in society." VOA

Using Artificial Intelligence (AI) with thyroid ultrasound offers a quick and non-invasive approach to thyroid cancer screening, says a new study.

The study, published in the journal PLOS Pathogens, suggests that automated machine learning shows promise as an additional diagnostic tool that could improve the efficiency of thyroid cancer diagnosis.


“Machine learning is a low-cost and efficient tool that could help physicians arrive at a quicker decision as to how to approach an indeterminate nodule,” said the study’s lead author John Eisenbrey from Thomas Jefferson University in the US.

According to the researchers, at present ultrasounds can tell if a nodule looks suspicious, and then the decision is made whether to do a needle biopsy, but fine-needle biopsies only act as a peephole, they don’t reveal the whole picture.

As a result, some biopsies return inconclusive results as to whether the nodule is malignant, or cancerous in other words.

In order to improve the predictive power of the first-line diagnostic, the ultrasound, researchers looked into machine learning or AI models developed by Google.

They applied a machine learning algorithm to ultrasound images of patients’ thyroid nodules to see if it could pick out distinguishing patterns.

The researchers trained the algorithm on images from 121 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided fine needle-biopsy with subsequent molecular testing.


Cancer Ribbon. Pixabay

From 134 total lesions, 43 nodules were classified as high risk and 91 were classified as low risk, based on a panel of genes used in the molecular testing.

A preliminary set of images with known risk classifications was used to train the model or algorithm.

From this bank of labeled images, the algorithm utilised machine learning technology to pick out patterns associated with high and low risk nodules.

It used these patterns to form its own set of internal parameters that could be used to sort future sets of images; it essentially ‘trained’ itself on this new task.

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Then the investigators tested the trained model on a different set of unlabeled images to see how closely it could classify high and low genetic risk nodules, compared to molecular tests results.

The researchers found that their algorithm performed with 97 per cent specificity and 90 per cent predictive positive value, meaning that 97 per cent of patients who truly have benign nodules will have their ultrasound read as ‘benign’ by the algorithm, and 90 per cent of malignant or ‘positive’ nodules are truly positive as classified by the algorithm.

The overall accuracy of the algorithm was 77.4 per cent. (IANS)


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"Malgudi is where we all belong, and where we wish we lived."

Malgudi, a small fictional town in South India has been part of the childhood of most Indians. It is an old, shabby, and peaceful town that is unruffled by politics. The stories set in this small town ring the sense of belongingness in the hearts of its readers. The familiar feeling that feels like home resonates with their soul. And teaches important life lessons to the readers through simple tales. Malgudi Days is one of the books that every Indian child should read. The book is a compilation of 32 short stories that paint a beautiful picture of small-town in India around the '60s and '70s

R. K. Narayan, one of the most well-known and popular writers within India and outside India is the creator of this town and the occurrences of this town. The stories follow the characters Swami and his friends through their everyday lives. Be it the story of fake astrologers who scam and loot the people by his cleverness, or the story of a blind beggar and his dog where the money blinded the man with greed; each story has a lesson to learn, morals and values hidden in it. As the stories are simple, easy to understand yet heart-touching it makes it easy for the kids to connect with each character and imagine the story as if the reader themselves were the protagonist of the story. In simple words, we can say that R.K. Narayan simply told stories of ordinary people trying to live their simple lives in a changing world.

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Photo by Flickr

It is believed that when a woman goes through her menstrual cycle, she goes through the different lunar energies.

Well, if you'll notice then the moon takes twenty-nine days to complete its lunar cycle, whereas women's menstrual cycle is generally 28 days! Coincidence? I think, not.

It is believed that when a woman goes through her menstrual cycle, she goes through the different lunar energies. In fact, in ancient times it was said that the natural rhythm of women was to menstruate under a new moon and ovulate under a full moon.

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Photo by Wikimedia Commons

Hugs, caress scenes, extramarital affairs, vulgar and bold dressing, bed scenes and intimacy of married couples are being glamourised in utter disregard to Islamic teachings and culture of Pakistani society," PEMRA stated

The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) has directed Pak TV channels to stop airing what it calls indecency and intimacy in dramas, Samaa TV reported.

A notification issued by the authority states that it has been receiving numerous complaints from viewers who believe that the content being depicted in dramas does not represent the "true picture of Pakistani society".

"PEMRA finally got something right: Intimacy and affection between married couples isn't 'true depiction of Pakistani society and must not be 'glamourized'. Our 'culture' is control, abuse, and violence, which we must jealously guard against the imposition of such alien values," said Reema Omer, Legal Advisor, South Asia, International Commission of Jurists.

"Hugs, caress scenes, extramarital affairs, vulgar and bold dressing, bed scenes and intimacy of married couples are being glamourized in utter disregard to Islamic teachings and culture of Pakistani society," PEMRA stated, as per the report.

The authority added that it has directed channels time and again to review content with "indecent dressing, controversial and objectionable plots, bed scenes and unnecessary detailing of events".

Most complaints received by the PEMRA Call Centre during September concern drama serial "Juda Huay Kuch is Tarah", which created quite a storm on social media for showing an unwitting married couple as foster siblings in a teaser for an upcoming episode. However, it only turned out to be a family scheme after the full episode aired, but by that time criticism had mounted on HUM TV for using the themes of incest to drive the plot, the report said. (IANS/JB)

Keywords: Pakistan, Islam, Serials, Dramas, Culture, Teachings.