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The entire edifice of Advaita metaphysics is built up on the foundation that Brahman is the only reality, 'brahma satyam'.

By- Devakinanda ji


ॐ अद्वयब्रह्मभूम्यै नमः

(Advaya: Non-dual, without a second; Brahman: The truth of everything, The Absolute,

The Reality)

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Advaita means- non-dual, one without a second. The Indian philosophical system derives this nomenclature from the fact that it recognizes Brahman (the Absolute) as the only reality and denies permanent reality to the world as also to individual souls. The entire edifice of Advaita metaphysics is built up on the foundation that Brahman is the only reality, 'brahma satyam'. This premise is based firmly on the famous Upanishadic statement 'sadevasomyaidamagrāsīt, ekamevā dvitīyam' which means, 'Dear (Śvetaketu), in the beginning (before creation) Reality (or Brahman) alone existed, the 'One without a second'. However, the world of multiplicity is a matter of our day-to-day experience. Hence, it becomes necessary to offer an explanation as to how Brahman, the One without a second, appears as this world of multiple names and forms. The explanation offered by Advaita is Anirvachanīya khyāti, a theory of erroneous cognition, which defies logic. Perceiving nacre as silver in moonlight or a rope as snake in insufficient light are stock examples given by the Advaitins. In both cases there is an erroneous perception brought about by the impressions of silver and snake from an earlier idea of the same, now superimposed up on nacre and rope under conditions favorable to the error. This superimposition called adhyāsa or adhyāropa is responsible for the mithyā jnāna (false knowledge) that the object perceived is silver or a snake.

Also Read: Maa Durga And Cosmic Divinty

The basic cause of this erroneous perception is termed ajnāna or avidyā (ignorance) which is said to be bhāvarūpa (existent) and is endowed with two śhaktis or powers i.e., āvaraṇa śhakti (veiling power) and vikṣhepa śhakti (transforming power). It veils the true nature of nacre and rope and shows up silver and snake in their place by apparently transforming them. Since this avidyā (ignorance) does not make the nacre and the rope completely disappear from view, but only makes them appear as something else, it is described as bhāvarūpa or existent.

Māya is avidya at the cosmic level. Brahman is as mall as aṇu (atom) and as large as bruhāt (infinitely big) and is the ultimate reality, One without a second. Brahman associated with māya is Saguṇa Brahman (Brahman with attributes) or Īśwara (Lord of creation, God). It is this aspect of Brahman that is responsible for creation, preservation, and annihilation of the world. As for the actual order of evolution of the created world, the descriptions given in the Upanishads are accepted.

Our Vedānta teaches 'Eko Brahman' meaning there is only Brahman, nothing else. The only land on the earth which teaches about the Only God is our mother land'Advayabrahma Bhūmi'.



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