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NASA’s soil mission will rejuvenate tea industry

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New Delhi: The internationally known Assam tea has got a savior from space — NASA’s soil mission that will rejuvenate the tea industry that is currently facing many hurdles including climate change. Plucking_tea_in_a_tea_garden_of_Assam

NASA launched in January this year the “Soil Moisture Active Passive” (SMAP) mission that has already started beaming key science to map global soil moisture and detect whether soils are frozen or thawed.

NASA’s soil moisture data will be of much help in planning field operations including irrigation, said R.M. Bhagat, chief scientist who is leading the climate research at the 104-year-old Tocklai Tea Research Institute (TRI) in Assam’s Jorhat district, nearly 300 km from Guwahati.

“Tea gardens suffer intermittent drought-like situations. The scope of this data will expand eventually and will be of much help to farmers and planters in crop planning,” Bhagat said.

“With the help of SMAP, soil moisture in the top five-cm of soil on the Earth’s surface will be measured from an orbiting observatory (or space vehicle) daily at around 10-km area resolution,” Bhagat said.

NASA has initially included 50 institutions worldwide to get this data and TRA is one of them, he added.

Tea production in Assam is currently facing many challenges including climate change, less labor availability plus increase in wages, and less availability of chemicals to control pests due to implementation of the “plant protection code”.

“Due to climate extremes — too much or too less rainfall — tea is becoming more vulnerable to pest attacks. Conditions are becoming more conducive for the growth and proliferation of certain pests,” Bhagat said.

The plant protection code was implemented this year to regulate chemicals in tea cultivation and to make tea a safe and healthy drink.

“The scope of the SMAP data will expand eventually and will be of much help to farmers and planters in crop planning,” Bhagat stressed.

Assam annually produces over 600 million kg of tea in an area of over 300,000 hectares. This is part of the over 1,100 million kg of tea produced in India, of which over 200 million kg is exported, according to official data.

The first tea plantations in Assam were started by the East India Company in the 1830s. Assam tea – scientific name Camellia sinensis assamica — produces rich, deep-amber liquor with a brisk, strong, distinctive malty taste.

Soiled moisture indirectly affects people’s lives as the topsoil is the one where food is grown. In the course of its observations, the SMAP will also determine if the ground is frozen or thawed in colder areas of the world.

According to Bhagat, the TRI has also tied up with other global organizations to improve the quality of Assam tea.

“We have tied up with Cranfield University of Britain to work on Soil Carbon stocks and climate resilience. Depleting soil carbon in soil, results in deteriorating soil health. Thus, increasing soil carbon helps in nutrient build-up, good soil health and retention of both water and nutrients,” he explained.

“This project will bring together researchers from Cranfield and Tocklai TRI to work jointly on this project for sustaining tea production in the face of climate change via studying Soil Carbon and ways and means to build this important component of soil,” Bhagat said.

TRI is also collaborating with London-based Ethical Tea Partnership (ETP), which will use its experiences in Kenya’s tea plantations in formulating strategies in Assam, with more emphasis on small tea growers.

Research on all aspects of tea cultivation and processing is carried out at Tocklai, the oldest and largest research station of its kind in the world, whose advisory network covers 1,076 tea estates.

The new era of tea research in India began with the establishment of the Scientific Department of Indian Tea Association (ITA) in 1900.

Research was boosted with the creation of the Tocklai Experimental Station in 1911. The Tocklai Experimental Station is now known as the Tocklai Tea Research Institute.

The TRI is also working on other methods to increase tea production.

“Studies are under way to use charged manure/compost with high nutrients, bio-fertilizers integrated with chemical fertilizers to decrease the use of chemicals and maintain soil health, yet sustain and increase production,” the scientist said.

(IANS)

Next Story

SpaceX Plans To Send NASA Astronauts To Space in Q2 This Year

As part of the test on Sunday, SpaceX configured Crew Dragon to trigger a launch escape about 1.5 minutes after liftoff

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NASA
It took a lot of work between NASA and SpaceX to get to this point. Pixabay

After NASA and SpaceX successfully completed a launch escape demonstration of the company’s Crew Dragon spacecraft and Falcon 9 rocket, Elon Musk said that his aerospace company aims to send NASA astronauts to space between April and June this year.

This was the final major flight test of the spacecraft before it begins carrying astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) under NASA’s Commercial Crew Programme, the US space agency said in a statement on Sunday.

With this test now complete, the next big flight of the Crew Dragon will have people on board: NASA astronauts Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley.

“We’re highly confident that the hardware will be ready in Q1, most likely at the end of February but no later than March. And we think it appears probable that the first crewed launch would occur in the second quarter,” said Musk after the successful uncrewed test of its Crew Dragon capsule’s in-flight launch escape capabilities.

Musk said that if all goes well, the first crewed flight on the Crew Dragon could take place in the second quarter of this year.

“This critical flight test puts us on the cusp of returning the capability to launch astronauts in American spacecraft on American rockets from American soil,” said NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine. “We are thrilled with the progress NASA’s Commercial Crew Programme is making and look forward to the next milestone for Crew Dragon.”

As part of the test on Sunday, SpaceX configured Crew Dragon to trigger a launch escape about 1.5 minutes after liftoff. All major functions were executed, including separation, engine firings, parachute deployment and landing. Crew Dragon splashed down at 10:38 am just off the Florida coast in the Atlantic Ocean.

“As far as we can tell thus far, it’s a picture perfect mission. It went as well as one can possibly expect,” said Musk. “This is a reflection of the dedication and hard work of the SpaceX and NASA teams to achieve this goal. Obviously, I’m super fired up. This is great.”

NASA
After NASA and SpaceX successfully completed a launch escape demonstration of the company’s Crew Dragon spacecraft and Falcon 9 rocket, Elon Musk said that his aerospace company aims to send NASA astronauts to space between April and June this year. Wikimedia Commons

Prior to the flight test, teams completed launch day procedures for the first crewed flight test, from suit-up to launch pad operations. The joint teams now will begin the full data reviews that need to be completed prior to NASA astronauts flying the system during SpaceX’s Demo-2 mission. “The past few days have been an incredible experience for us,” said astronaut Doug Hurley.

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“Today, we watched the demonstration of a system that we hope to never use, but can save lives if we ever do. It took a lot of work between NASA and SpaceX to get to this point, and we can’t wait to take a ride to the space station soon,” he said in the NASA statement. (IANS)