Tuesday July 16, 2019
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NASA’s soil mission will rejuvenate tea industry

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New Delhi: The internationally known Assam tea has got a savior from space — NASA’s soil mission that will rejuvenate the tea industry that is currently facing many hurdles including climate change. Plucking_tea_in_a_tea_garden_of_Assam

NASA launched in January this year the “Soil Moisture Active Passive” (SMAP) mission that has already started beaming key science to map global soil moisture and detect whether soils are frozen or thawed.

NASA’s soil moisture data will be of much help in planning field operations including irrigation, said R.M. Bhagat, chief scientist who is leading the climate research at the 104-year-old Tocklai Tea Research Institute (TRI) in Assam’s Jorhat district, nearly 300 km from Guwahati.

“Tea gardens suffer intermittent drought-like situations. The scope of this data will expand eventually and will be of much help to farmers and planters in crop planning,” Bhagat said.

“With the help of SMAP, soil moisture in the top five-cm of soil on the Earth’s surface will be measured from an orbiting observatory (or space vehicle) daily at around 10-km area resolution,” Bhagat said.

NASA has initially included 50 institutions worldwide to get this data and TRA is one of them, he added.

Tea production in Assam is currently facing many challenges including climate change, less labor availability plus increase in wages, and less availability of chemicals to control pests due to implementation of the “plant protection code”.

“Due to climate extremes — too much or too less rainfall — tea is becoming more vulnerable to pest attacks. Conditions are becoming more conducive for the growth and proliferation of certain pests,” Bhagat said.

The plant protection code was implemented this year to regulate chemicals in tea cultivation and to make tea a safe and healthy drink.

“The scope of the SMAP data will expand eventually and will be of much help to farmers and planters in crop planning,” Bhagat stressed.

Assam annually produces over 600 million kg of tea in an area of over 300,000 hectares. This is part of the over 1,100 million kg of tea produced in India, of which over 200 million kg is exported, according to official data.

The first tea plantations in Assam were started by the East India Company in the 1830s. Assam tea – scientific name Camellia sinensis assamica — produces rich, deep-amber liquor with a brisk, strong, distinctive malty taste.

Soiled moisture indirectly affects people’s lives as the topsoil is the one where food is grown. In the course of its observations, the SMAP will also determine if the ground is frozen or thawed in colder areas of the world.

According to Bhagat, the TRI has also tied up with other global organizations to improve the quality of Assam tea.

“We have tied up with Cranfield University of Britain to work on Soil Carbon stocks and climate resilience. Depleting soil carbon in soil, results in deteriorating soil health. Thus, increasing soil carbon helps in nutrient build-up, good soil health and retention of both water and nutrients,” he explained.

“This project will bring together researchers from Cranfield and Tocklai TRI to work jointly on this project for sustaining tea production in the face of climate change via studying Soil Carbon and ways and means to build this important component of soil,” Bhagat said.

TRI is also collaborating with London-based Ethical Tea Partnership (ETP), which will use its experiences in Kenya’s tea plantations in formulating strategies in Assam, with more emphasis on small tea growers.

Research on all aspects of tea cultivation and processing is carried out at Tocklai, the oldest and largest research station of its kind in the world, whose advisory network covers 1,076 tea estates.

The new era of tea research in India began with the establishment of the Scientific Department of Indian Tea Association (ITA) in 1900.

Research was boosted with the creation of the Tocklai Experimental Station in 1911. The Tocklai Experimental Station is now known as the Tocklai Tea Research Institute.

The TRI is also working on other methods to increase tea production.

“Studies are under way to use charged manure/compost with high nutrients, bio-fertilizers integrated with chemical fertilizers to decrease the use of chemicals and maintain soil health, yet sustain and increase production,” the scientist said.

(IANS)

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Incredible Full Moon Falls on 50th Anniversary of NASA’s Apollo 11

The partial lunar eclipse will occur during the full moon beginning Tuesday night

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Full Moon, Anniversary, NASA
The moon is seen during a lunar eclipse known as the "Super Blood Wolf Moon," in Manaus, Brazil, Jan. 21, 2019. VOA

The last lunar eclipse of the year will take place this week, allowing stargazers from large swathes of the globe to catch a glimpse of the celestial phenomena.

The partial lunar eclipse will occur during the full moon beginning Tuesday night, and will be visible in South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. The only region that will miss out on viewing the eclipse entirely is North America.

A lunar eclipse occurs when there is an alignment of the moon, the sun and the Earth. It can only happen during a full moon, because that is the only time the moon can be directly opposite of the sun in Earth’s sky.

The upcoming alignment will result in a partial lunar eclipse because the moon will be slightly askew from a direct line with Earth’s shadow.

Full Moon, Anniversary, NASA
The last lunar eclipse of the year will take place this week, allowing stargazers from large swathes of the globe to catch a glimpse of the celestial phenomena. Pixabay

This lunar eclipse will come two weeks after a total eclipse of the sun was visible over South America. This follows a typical astronomical pattern of lunar eclipses occurring within two weeks of a solar eclipse.

The last lunar eclipse took place in January 2019 and was visible from both Americas as well as parts of Europe and Africa. The next lunar eclipse will not take place until next year, however all four eclipses in 2020 will only be penumbral eclipses, which are much weaker than partial or full eclipses.

During penumbral eclipses, the moon passes through the weakest shadow cast by Earth and often does not visibly darken to the naked eye.

There won’t be another total lunar eclipse until May 2021.

Also Read- India Aborts Launch of Spacecraft Intended to Land on Far Side of Moon

Apollo anniversary

Tuesday’s lunar eclipse will be seen by stargazers at different times around the globe. Viewers in South America will be the first to see Earth’s shadow touch the moon’s surface when the moon is rising in the sky around sunset July 16, while watchers in Asia and Australia will see the moon in eclipse as it sets around sunrise July 17.

Interestingly, this celestial event falls on the anniversary of another lunar happening: July 16 is the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 rocket launch, which first landed humans on the moon. (VOA)