Wednesday November 20, 2019

Bariatric Surgery Leads To Nutritional Deficiency

Recipients of Bariatric Surgery may develop nutritional deficiency

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Surgery
Weight loss surgery can be a life changer but recipients may suffer from nutritional deficiency. Pixabay

BY BHARAT UPADHYAY

Bariatric surgery can be a life-changer for severely obese teenagers, but the recipients may develop nutritional deficiencies years after treatment that can carry their own health risks if not properly managed, said health experts.

Lifestyle modifications and eating healthy food, along with exercise, might work, they added.

Bariatric surgery refers to a gamut of weight-loss surgeries often recommended to people suffering from chronic obesity and obesity-related health problems such as diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol level and sleep apnea.

There are many types of bariatric operations, but surgeons commonly use three — Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.

By making changes to the anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach and digestive system, these surgeries help people lose weight by cutting down their food intake, or by reducing the absorption of nutrients, or both.

Weight loss surgery
Lifestyle modifications and eating healthy food, along with exercise is better than a weight loss surgery. Pixabay

However, the side effects of bariatric surgery may include infection, bone demineralisation, anaemia, diarrohea, nutritional shortages, gallstones, hernias, pregnancy complications for women and premature birth of babies.

According to Faizal Mumtaz, Senior Consultant, Department of Minimally Invasive Surgery, at Delhi’s Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, bariatric surgery or metabolic surgery is basically a weight reduction surgery, which has an additional advantage of correcting diabetes.

“It can either be restrictive, or a combination of restrictive and malabsorption. Restrictive bariatric surgery reduces the size of the stomach. This limits the amount of food that can be consumed and creates a feeling of fullness,” Mumtaz told IANS.

“A malabsorptive bariatric surgery limits the number of nutrients the body can absorb, and the patients has be provided supplements (iron, B1, B12, etc),” Mumtaz explained.

“Post-bariatric surgery, it is very important to make lifestyle modifications, eat healthy food and maintain a healthy regime. There’s no particular precaution, but the only thing to keep in mind is a maintaining a health and exercise regime,” Mumtaz added.

In a recent study published in the journal Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, researchers found that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and vertical sleeve gastrectomy are linked to lower levels of vitamin B12 and iron deficiency.

People with B12 deficiency can not only suffer from anaemia, but can also experience symptoms of depression, irritability, cognitive slowing and forgetfulness. Severe deficiency can sometimes lead to numbness or tingle in extremities, gait problems and partial paralysis.

Surgery
Post-bariatric surgery, it is very important to make lifestyle modifications, eat healthy food and maintain a healthy regime. Pixabay

“Though it is a common notion that nutrient absorption gradually decreases over the years post bariatric surgery, such procedures are highly beneficial to overweight patients above the age of 50 years,” R.P. Singh, gastroenterologist at Saroj Super Specialty Hospital in New Delhi, told IANS.

He however, added that teenagers must avoid such surgeries.

“Nutrient supplementation helps in providing the essential nutrients, but teenagers undergoing such gastric bypass surgery tend to lose essential nutrient absorption and become susceptible to conditions like anaemia due to lack of iron, copper and essential vitamins like folate and Vitamin B12 over the years,” Singh explained.

He added that iron deficiency causing anaemia is a concern in 5-20 per cent of the patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery as teenagers.

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“Through proper dietary follow-ups and supplements, their levels of micronutrients can be managed,” Singh concluded. (IANS)

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Report: Express Grieving Conditions for Sanitation Workers in Developing Countries

Authors of the report say sanitation workers in developing countries largely operate in the informal sector

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Developing Countries
Sanitation workers are the people who work in jobs such as cleaning toilets, emptying pits and septic tanks, cleaning sewage and manholes and operating pumping stations and treatment plants, but their Condition is not good in Developing Countries. Wikimedia Commons

A new report by leading health and safety agencies finds millions of sanitation workers in Developing Countries are forced to work under horrific conditions that put their health and lives at risk.

Sanitation workers everywhere occupy the lowest rung of society and are stigmatized and marginalized because they do the dirty work that other people do not want to do.

The report’s authors – the International Labor Organization, the World Health Organization, the World Bank and Water Aid – say they hope to raise awareness on the plight of sanitation workers and the dehumanizing conditions under which they are forced to work. For example, the report says that many sanitation workers aren’t given the safety training or equipment needed to protect them when handling effluent or fecal sludge.

World Health Organization spokesman Christian Lindmeier says sanitation workers make an important contribution to public health at the risk of their own lives. Poor sanitation, he says, causes more than 430,000 deaths from diarrhea every year and is linked to the spread of other diseases such as cholera, dysentery, typhoid, hepatitis A and polio.

“Sanitation workers are the people who work in jobs such as cleaning toilets, emptying pits and septic tanks, cleaning sewage and manholes and operating pumping stations and treatment plants.… Waste must be correctly treated before being disposed of or used. However, workers often come into direct contact with human waste, working with no equipment or no protection to remove it by hand which exposes them to a long list of health hazards and diseases,” Lindmeier said.

Developing Countries
A new report by leading health and safety agencies finds millions of Sanitation Workers in Developing Countries are forced to work under horrific conditions that put their health and lives at risk. VOA

Authors of the report say sanitation workers in developing countries largely operate in the informal sector. They labor under abusive conditions, have no rights or social protections and are poorly paid.

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The study calls on countries to rectify these wrongs. It urges governments to enact laws and regulations that improve working conditions for sanitation workers and protect their safety and health. It says sanitation workers must be given the equipment and training necessary for the safe, proper disposal of waste. (VOA)