Friday February 28, 2020

Bariatric Surgery may Help Resolve Respiratory Issues

Weight loss surgery may improve breathing issues

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Respiratory
Researchers have revealed that Bariatric surgery and weight loss appear to reverse some of the negative effects of obesity on the respiratory system. Pixabay

Researchers have revealed that Bariatric surgery and weight loss appear to reverse some of the negative effects of obesity on the respiratory system.

Known effects of obesity on the respiratory system include increased respiratory work, along with compromised airway resistance and respiratory muscle strength, which may all contribute to restrictive pulmonary function impairment.

As an imaging technology that provides detailed pictures of the lungs and airways, CT has great potential to improve understanding of obesity’s impact on the respiratory system.

Until now, however, there have been few CT studies evaluating obesity’s effects on the lungs and the trachea, often referred to as the windpipe.

“For the first time, this study has demonstrated changes in the CT morphology of large and small airways that improve when individuals lose weight. These features correlate with an improvement in patient symptoms,” said study lead author Susan J. Copley from Hammersmith Hospital in London.

Respiratory  weight loss
Known effects of obesity on the respiratory system include increased respiratory work. Pixabay

For the study, published in the journal Radiology, the research team evaluated changes in the respiratory systems of 51 obese individuals who underwent Bariatric surgery, a treatment for obese patients who haven’t responded to other weight loss approaches.

The procedure reduces the size of the stomach. All participants lost weight post-surgery with a mean body mass index decrease of 10.5 kg/m2.

The researchers used CT to measure the size and shape of the trachea and assessed air trapping, a phenomenon in which excess air remains in the lungs after exhaling, resulting in a reduction in lung function.

Air trapping is an indirect sign of obstruction in the small airways of the lung.

When the researchers compared results at baseline and six months after Bariatric surgery, they found that surgery and weight loss were associated with morphological, or structural, changes to the lung and trachea.

Also Read- Drinking Alcohol During Pregnancy Proved to be Harmful: Study

The results suggest that there may be a reversible element of small airway inflammation related to obesity and that reversal of this inflammation correlates with improvement in symptoms. The findings also point to CT as a potential marker of this inflammation.

“CT is a useful morphological marker to demonstrate subtle changes which are not easily assessed by lung function alone,” Copley said. (IANS)

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Air Pollution Increases Risk of Developing Kidney Diseases

India may face kidney diseases due to air pollution

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Kidney disease pollution
People living in countries with higher levels of air pollution such as India and China may face higher risks of developing kidney diseases. Pixabay

Researchers have found that people living in countries with higher levels of air pollution such as India and China may face higher risks of developing kidney diseases.

The findings may be especially important for parts of the world with higher air pollution where fine particulate matter levels are five to 10 times higher than in the US, the study said.

It’s known that breathing in air pollution can have detrimental health effects beyond the lungs, but few studies have shown how it impacts the kidneys, which act as filters for the blood.

“As rates of chronic kidney disease rise worldwide, it is important to understand whether and how exposure to air pollution plays a role,” said study researcher Matthew F. Blum from the Johns Hopkins University in the US.

Kidney disease pollution
It’s known that breathing in air pollution can have detrimental health effects beyond the lungs, but few studies have shown how it impacts the kidneys, which act as filters for the blood. Pixabay

For the findings, published in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, the research team examined information on 10,997 adults across four sites in the US who were followed from 1996-1998 through 2016.

The researchers estimated the monthly average levels of tiny particles of air pollution–called fine particulate matter–based on participants’ home addresses.

Fine particulate matter comes from a variety of sources including fossil fuel combustion, industrial processes, and natural sources, they said.

Also Read- 4 in 10 American Adults are Obese: Survey

The team found that exposure to higher amounts of fine particulate matter was associated with a higher degree of albuminuria — a marker of kidney dysfunction — at the start of the study as well as a higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease over time.

According to the researchers, future studies should examine whether efforts to improve air quality yield health benefits, including reducing rates of chronic kidney disease. (IANS)