Friday February 28, 2020

Benefits of a Balanced Sleep Routine

A good refreshing sleep is very important for all of us

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Balanced sleep
Here are reasons why a balanced sleep is a necessity. Pixabay

A good refreshing sleep is very important for all of us as it helps solidify and consolidate memories, restores and rejuvenates the various body functions, helps to grow muscle, repair tissue, and synthesize hormones. Dr Vivek Nangia, Director and Head, Pulmonology, Fortis Hospital, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi brings to the light the necessity of a balanced sleep routine. Balancing your sleep is a very important health advice.

Too little or too much sleep, both can be harmful. While, adults need 7-9 hours of sleep per night, one-year-olds need roughly 11 to 14 hours, school age children between 9 and 11 hours, and teenagers between 8 and 10 hours.

During these critical periods of growth and learning, younger people need an important dose of slumber for optimal development and application.

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) refers to a bent to nod off, nod, or doze easily in relaxed or sedentary situations, or a requirement to exert extra effort to avoid sleeping in these situations. Unwanted sleepiness can also manifest as “sleep attacks” (irresistible urges to sleep), occurring not only during monotonous situations conducive to sleep, but also in situations where the patient is actively engaged in a task.

Balanced sleep
You need to create a relaxing environment for a balanced sleep. Pixabay

In addition to frank sleepiness, the EDS can cause related symptoms, including poor memory, reduced concentration or attention, tiredness, easy fatigability and irritability. Persons with excessive daytime sleepiness are in danger of automobile and work-related incidents and have poorer health than comparable adults.

The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are as follows

1. Sleep deprivation

2. Obstructive sleep apnea

3. Sedating medications

4. Shift workers

5. Other possible causes of excessive daytime sleepiness include certain medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy.

Adolescents, older persons, and shift workers are prone to suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness.

The most common explanation for daytime sleepiness is sleep deprivation or insufficient sleep, which can reflect poor sleep “hygiene” (behaviours impacting sleep) or self-imposed or work/socially-dictated sleep deprivation. Some common causes of sleep deprivation include excessive or inconsistent work hours, personal obligations and an underlying medical condition.

Factors which will contribute to chronic insomnia include people who end in increased nocturnal alertness, like excessive caffeine, frequent naps, and stressful work at night, and people that interfere with sleep continuity, like falling asleep with the tv or radio on, excessive time in bed, and other environmental factors.

Obstructive apnea represents the foremost frequent explanation for sleep-related breathing disorders, which encompass a diversity of conditions that either complicate coexisting disease or present as primary disorders. Many of those disorders have consequences during both sleep and wakefulness and should produce substantial burden of symptoms and disease in untreated individuals.

Sleepiness is the most commonly reported side effect of certain pharmacologic agents that act on the central nervous system. The modulation of sleep and wakefulness is a complex process involving multiple factors and systems.

Although no single chemical neurotransmitter has been identified as necessary or sufficient in the control of sleep, most drugs with clinical sedative or hypnotic actions affect one or more of the central neurotransmitters implicated in the neuromodulation of sleep and wakefulness. In some cases, daytime sleepiness may be a side effect of a particular medication, such as antihistamines, antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiety and high blood pressure medications.

Balanced sleep exercise
Exercising regularly leads to a balanced sleep routine. Pixabay

Correctly diagnosing the cause of excessive sleepiness is important for determining the best treatment. The specific treatment for excessive sleepiness entirely depends on the cause.

However, some simple lifestyle changes may help people get a better night’s sleep. These include:

1. Eating a healthful, balanced diet

2. Limiting caffeine and alcohol intake

3. Exercising regularly

4. Creating a relaxing sleep environment

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5. Taking a warm bath before bedtime

6. Keeping a consistent sleep schedule

Excessive sleepiness is not a disorder in itself but a symptom of insufficient sleep or an underlying health condition. (IANS)

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Here’s Why Vaping Can Make You More Prone To Inflammation and Infection

The predominance of these periodontal pathogens in the mouths of e-cigarette users and traditional smokers is a reflection of compromised periodontal health

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Vaping
While vaping has quickly grown in popularity in recent years, a growing number of people are falling ill or dying from vaping-related illnesses, the study said. Pixabay

Using e-cigarettes alters the mouth’s microbiome — the community of bacteria and other microorganisms — and makes users more prone to inflammation and infection, researchers have found.

While vaping has quickly grown in popularity in recent years, a growing number of people are falling ill or dying from vaping-related illnesses, the study said.

“Our study suggests that vaping electronic cigarettes causes shifts in the oral environment and highly influences the colonisation of complex microbial biofilms, which raises the risk for oral inflammation and infection,” said Indian-origin researcher and study co-author Deepak Saxena from the New York University in the US.

“Given the popularity of vaping, it is critical that we learn more about the effects of e-cigarette aerosols on the oral microbiome and host inflammatory responses in order to better understand the impact of vaping on human health,” said co-senior author Xin Li. For the study, published in the journal iScience, the research team examined e-cigarette vapour and its influence on the oral microbiome and immune health.

“The oral microbiome is of interest to us because research shows that changes in its microbial community as a result of environmental and host factors contribute to a range of health issues, including cavities, gum disease, halitosis, and medical conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancers,” Saxena said. They also evaluated how vaping influences infection efficiency of oral pathogens in cell lines using a novel e-cigarette aerosol generating machine and measured pro-inflammatory immune mediators.

Through oral exams and saliva samples, the researchers studied the oral microbiome of 119 human participants from three groups: e-cigarette users, regular cigarette smokers, and those who had never smoked. Gum disease or infection was significantly higher among cigarette smokers (72.5 per cent), followed by e-cigarette users (42.5 per cent) and non-smokers (28.2 per cent).

Using 16S rRNA high throughput sequencing, a technique used to profile microbial communities, the researchers observed different microorganisms in the saliva of e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and non-smokers. For instance, e-cigarette users had an abundance of Porphyromonas bacteria, while an increase in Veillonella bacteria was found in both e-cigarette and cigarette users.

Vaping
Using e-cigarettes alters the mouth’s microbiome — the community of bacteria and other microorganisms — and makes users more prone to inflammation and infection, researchers have found. Pixabay

“The predominance of these periodontal pathogens in the mouths of e-cigarette users and traditional smokers is a reflection of compromised periodontal health,” said Li.

The researchers also found that the altered microbiome in e-cigarette users influenced the local host immune environment compared to non-smokers and cigarette smokers. IL-6 and IL1ß — cytokines involved in inflammatory responses — were highly elevated in e-cigarette users. Cell studies also showed upregulation of IL-6 after exposure to e-cigarette aerosols, resulting in an elevated inflammatory response.

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Moreover, e-cigarette aerosols made cells prone to bacterial infection, which points to a greater risk for infection in e-cigarette users, the study said. (IANS)