Tuesday March 19, 2019

New Biomarker Helps Identify Cancer Chemotherapy Timing

Angiogenesis therapy is clinically used to suppress tumour growth. Adding an anti-angiogenic drug can boost an anticancer drug's effectiveness

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Biomarker can be used to decide timing fro chemotherapy.

In ray of hope for doctors to identify the tumour normalising period for effective timing of anti-cancer drug treatment, a team of researchers have discovered a new biomarker that can visualise the activity of blood vessels.

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is essential for tumour growth. The team from Osaka University in Japan, in a paper reported in The American Journal of Pathology, described a vascular stabilization biomarker that can visualize blood vessel activity, thus optimising the timing of anticancer therapies including anti-angiogenics.

Chronic diseases are not yet included in cancer prevention schemes.
This can help cancer patients greatly.

Combination therapy using angiogenesis inhibitors and anticancer drugs can improve drug delivery into tumour tissues and prolong progression-free survival. “Vascular normalisation by angiogenesis inhibitors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling inhibitors, is a promising method for improvement of chemotherapy.

“However, it is unclear how we can recognise the ‘window of opportunity’ for the tumour vascular normalising period for effective timing of anti-cancer drug treatment. Therefore, biomarkers delineating this window are essential,” explained Nobuyuki Takakura, Professor at Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University.

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Angiogenesis therapy is clinically used to suppress tumour growth. Adding an anti-angiogenic drug can boost an anticancer drug’s effectiveness. Basic research indicates that anti-angiogenic therapy allows the blood vessels to return to quiescence and “normalise” so that the anti-cancer drug can penetrate the tumour more effectively. IANS

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New Finding! Scientists Have Developed Robotic Tool To Detect And Kill Cancer Cells in Humans

The researchers used their robotic system to study early-stage and later-stage bladder cancer cells. Previously, they had to extract the cell nuclei to examine it.

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The study, published in the journal Science Robotics, described the design in which a magnetic iron bead about 100 times smaller than the thickness of a human hair can be coaxed into any desired position within the cell, the Xinhua reported. Pixabay

Canadian scientists have developed a kind of magnetic tweezer that can precisely insert a minuscule bead robot into a live human cancer cell, pointing to a new option for diagnosing and killing cancer.

The study, published in the journal Science Robotics, described the design in which a magnetic iron bead about 100 times smaller than the thickness of a human hair can be coaxed into any desired position within the cell, the Xinhua reported.

The bead, about 700 nanometres in diameter, is placed on the microscope coverslip surrounded by six magnetic coils in different planes, and the cancer cell can swallow the bead into its membrane.

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They were able to measure how much stiffer the nucleus got when prodded repeatedly, and thus find out which cell protein or proteins might play a role in controlling this response, which could work as a new method of detecting cancer in early stage. Pixabay

Then, the researchers from University of Toronto controlled the bead’s position under a microscope, using a computer-controlled algorithm to vary the electrical current through coils and shaping the magnetic field in three dimensions.

The researchers used their robotic system to study early-stage and later-stage bladder cancer cells. Previously, they had to extract the cell nuclei to examine it.

The team measured cell nuclei in intact cells instead of breaking apart the cell membrane, showing that the nucleus is not equally stiff in all directions.

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In the later-stage cells, the stiffening response is not as strong as they are in the early stage, though both are seemingly similar, the researchers said. VOA

“It’s a bit like a football in shape. Mechanically, it’s stiffer along one axis than the other,” said Professor Sun Yu.

“We wouldn’t have known that without this new technique.”

They were able to measure how much stiffer the nucleus got when prodded repeatedly, and thus find out which cell protein or proteins might play a role in controlling this response, which could work as a new method of detecting cancer in early stage.

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In the later-stage cells, the stiffening response is not as strong as they are in the early stage, though both are seemingly similar, the researchers said.

Also, the team visualised using the tiny robots to either starve a tumour by blocking its blood vessels, or destroy it directly through mechanical ablation, although those applications are still a long way from clinical uses. (IANS)