Sunday December 15, 2019

New Biomarker Helps Identify Cancer Chemotherapy Timing

Angiogenesis therapy is clinically used to suppress tumour growth. Adding an anti-angiogenic drug can boost an anticancer drug's effectiveness

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Biomarker can be used to decide timing fro chemotherapy.

In ray of hope for doctors to identify the tumour normalising period for effective timing of anti-cancer drug treatment, a team of researchers have discovered a new biomarker that can visualise the activity of blood vessels.

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is essential for tumour growth. The team from Osaka University in Japan, in a paper reported in The American Journal of Pathology, described a vascular stabilization biomarker that can visualize blood vessel activity, thus optimising the timing of anticancer therapies including anti-angiogenics.

Chronic diseases are not yet included in cancer prevention schemes.
This can help cancer patients greatly.

Combination therapy using angiogenesis inhibitors and anticancer drugs can improve drug delivery into tumour tissues and prolong progression-free survival. “Vascular normalisation by angiogenesis inhibitors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling inhibitors, is a promising method for improvement of chemotherapy.

“However, it is unclear how we can recognise the ‘window of opportunity’ for the tumour vascular normalising period for effective timing of anti-cancer drug treatment. Therefore, biomarkers delineating this window are essential,” explained Nobuyuki Takakura, Professor at Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University.

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Angiogenesis therapy is clinically used to suppress tumour growth. Adding an anti-angiogenic drug can boost an anticancer drug’s effectiveness. Basic research indicates that anti-angiogenic therapy allows the blood vessels to return to quiescence and “normalise” so that the anti-cancer drug can penetrate the tumour more effectively. IANS

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Saliva Test can Detect Oropharyngeal Cancer

Saliva test can detect mouth, throat cancer early

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Saliva test shows promise for earlier and easier detection of mouth and throat cancer. Pixabay

A non-invasive saliva test can detect human papilloma virus-16 — the strain associated with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) — showing promise for earlier and easier detection of mouth and throat cancer, report researchers.

The novel technique detected OPC in whole saliva in 40 per cent of patients tested and 80 per cent of confirmed OPC patients.

OPC has an approximate incidence of 115,000 cases per year worldwide and is one of the fastest-rising cancers owing to increasing HPV-related incidence, especially in younger patients.

“It is paramount that surveillance methods are developed to improve early detection and outcomes,” said co-lead investigator Tony Jun Huang from Duke University in the US.

Cancers that occur in the back of the mouth and upper throat are often not diagnosed until they become advanced, partly because their location makes them difficult to see during routine clinical exams.

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Cancers that occur in the back of the mouth and upper throat are often not diagnosed until they become advanced. Pixabay

“The successful detection of HPV from salivary exosomes isolated by our acoustofluidic platform offers distinct advantages, including early detection, risk assessment and screening,” added Dr Huang in a paper published in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics.

This technique may also help physicians predict which patients will respond well to radiation therapy or achieve longer progression-free survival.

In the study, investigators analyzed saliva samples from 10 patients diagnosed with HPV-OPC using traditional methods.

They found that the technique identified the tumour biomarker in 80 per cent of the cases when coupled with the traditional detection method called droplet digital PCR.

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“The saliva exosome liquid biopsy is an effective early detection and risk assessment approach for OPC,” said co-lead investigator David TW Wong from University of California-Los Angeles.

According to the researchers, this technology can also be used to analyze other biofluids such as blood, urine and plasma. (IANS)