Sunday June 24, 2018

Blocking key Gene in Fish may Reduce Cigarette Smoke Toxicity Effect, says Research

Zebrafish are a widely used as model species for studying human genetics and disease

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Cigarette, Wikimedia
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New York, Oct 4, 2016: Blocking the production of a key receptor may reduce the effects of particulate matter from cigarette smoke in zebrafish embryos, a study has found.

The effects of this toxicity which include malformed blood vessels and brain haemorrhages may affect early development in zebrafish embryos and increase the risk of neurological disorders and physical deformities.

Zebrafish are a widely used as model species for studying human genetics and disease.

The researchers injected early-stage zebrafish embryos with a molecule to block a specific gene’s activity and prevented the production of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (AHR2). This disrupted the metabolic pathway thought to play an important role in cigarette smoke toxicity.

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“The knockdown resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of deformities in the modified embryos. Deformities still occurred, but far less frequently than in embryos without the modification,” said Andrey Massarsky, Researcher at the Duke’s Nicholas School of the Environment in Durham, US.

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Initially, Massarsky and his colleagues hypothesised that their knockdown of the AHR2 receptor worked because it concurrently blocked the expression of the two main enzymes – cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) – involved with PAH metabolism.

But subsequent experiments, in which these enzymes were each knocked down, suggested that there was more to it.

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“We found that deformities were actually exacerbated when CYP1A and CYP1B1 were blocked. This shows that, if anything, these enzymes play a protective role. To some extent, they help prevent the deformities from occurring,” Massarsky added in the study published in the journal Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.

These seemingly contradictory findings could be because the CYP1A and CYP1B1 knockdowns may decrease the toxicity of some of the PAHs found in cigarette smoke’s total particulate matter while increasing the toxicity of others.

But it is also possible that turning up the AHR2 pathway interferes with other biochemical signalling pathways. For example, recent studies show that activation of the AHR2 pathway may, in fact, inhibit the proper operation of pathways that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.

These pathways are critical to early embryonic development, particularly the formation of bone, heart and muscle tissues. (IANS)

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  • Antara

    Wonderful news! Development of such a research would prove to be extremely helpful!

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FIFA World Cup 2018: Indian Cuisine becomes the most sought after in Moscow

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Indian cuisine in FIFA World cup
Indian dishes available in Moscow during FIFA World Cup 2018, representational image, wikimedia commons

June 17, 2018:

Restaurateurs Prodyut and Sumana Mukherjee have not only brought Indian cuisine to the ongoing FIFA World Cup 2018 here but also plan to dish out free dinner to countrymen if Argentina wins the trophy on July 15.

Based in Moscow for the last 27 years, Prodyut and Sumana run two Indian eateries, “Talk Of The Town” and “Fusion Plaza”.

You may like to read more on Indian cuisine: Indian ‘masala’, among other condiments spicing up global food palate.

Both restaurants serve popular Indian dishes like butter chicken, kebabs and a varied vegetarian spread.

During the ongoing FIFA World Cup 2018, there will be 25 per cent discount for those who will possess a Fan ID (required to watch World Cup games).

There will also be gifts and contests on offers during matches in both the restaurants to celebrate the event.

The Mukherjees, hailing from Kolkata, are die-hard fans of Argentina. Despite Albiceleste drawing 1-1 with Iceland in their group opener with Lionel Messi failing to sparkle, they believe Jorge Sampaoli’s team can go the distance.

“I am an Argentina fan. I have booked tickets for a quarterfinal match, a semifinal and of course the final. If Argentina goes on to lift

During the World Cup, there will be 25 per cent discount for those who will possess a Fan ID (required to watch World Cup games).

There will also be gifts and contests on offers during matches in both the restaurants to celebrate the event.

FIFA World Cup 2018 Russia
FIFA World Cup 2018, Wikimedia Commons.

“We have been waiting for this World Cup. Indians come in large numbers during the World Cup and we wanted these eateries to be a melting point,” he added.

According to Cutting Edge Events, FIFA’s official sales agency in India for the 2018 World Cup, India is amongst the top 10 countries in terms of number of match tickets bought.

Read more about Indian cuisine abroad: Hindoostane Coffee House: London’s First Indian Restaurant.

Prodyut came to Moscow to study engineering and later started working for a pharmaceutical company here before trying his hand in business. Besides running the two restaurants with the help of his wife, he was into the distribution of pharmaceutical products.

“After Russia won the first match of the World Cup, the footfall has gone up considerably. The Indians are also flooding in after the 6-9 p.m. game. That is the time both my restaurants remain full,” Prodyut said.

There are also plans to rope in registered fan clubs of Latin American countries, who will throng the restaurants during matches and then follow it up with after-game parties till the wee hours.

“I did get in touch with some of the fan clubs I had prior idea about. They agreed to come over and celebrate the games at our joints. Those will be gala nights when both eateries will remain open all night for them to enjoy,” Prodyut said.

Watching the World Cup is a dream come true for the couple, Sumana said.

“We want to make the Indians who have come here to witness the spectacle and feel at home too. We always extend a helping hand and since we are from West Bengal, we make special dishes for those who come from Bengal,” she added. (IANS)