Tuesday May 22, 2018

Brain mechanism behind depression, an explained research

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350 million people are known to suffer depression Pixabay
350 million people are known to suffer depression Pixabay
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The findings, published in the journal Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, provide clues as to which regions of the brain could be at the root of symptoms, such as reduced happiness and pleasure, or negative memories, in depression.

Over 5 crore people in India are known to suffer depressive disorders Pixabay
Over 5 crore people in India are known to suffer depressive disorders Pixabay

Findings

  • Brain regions involved in reward and subjective pleasure received less drive (or reduced effective connectivity) in patients, which may contribute to the decreased feeling of happiness in depression.
  • In addition, brain regions involved in punishment and responses when a reward is not received had increased activity, providing evidence for the source of sadness that occurs in the disorder.
  • Memory-related areas of the brain had increased activity and connectivity in people with depression, which the authors suggest may be related to heightened memory processing, possibly of unpleasant memories, in depression.

“These findings are part of a concerted approach to better understand the brain mechanisms related to depression, and thereby to lead to new ways of understanding and treating depression,” said one of the researchers Edmund Rolls, Professor at University of Warwick in England.

86 million people in South-east Asia suffer from depression Pixabay
86 million people in South-east Asia suffer from depression Pixabay

Method

  • For the study, the researchers used a new approach to measure the influence of one brain region on another, referred to as effective connectivity, in depression.
  • The approach goes beyond the limitations of previous brain imaging studies, which show if — but not how — activity of different brain regions is related.
  • The new method allows the effect of one brain region on another to be measured in depression, in order to discover more about which brain systems make causal contributions to depression.
  • The researchers compared 336 people with major depressive disorder to 350 healthy controls. (IANS)

 

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Depression in Males Can Reduce The Pregnancy Chances, says Study

Citing previous studies, the authors noted that 41 per cent of women seeking fertility treatments have symptoms of depression.

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Among couples being treated for infertility, depression in the male partner was linked to lower pregnancy chances, according to a study.
Depression in males can reduce the chances of pregnancy. Pixabay

Among couples being treated for infertility, depression in the male partner was linked to lower pregnancy chances, according to a study.

The study showed that couples in which the male partner had major depression were 60 per cent less likely to conceive and give birth than those in which the male partner did not have major depression.

On the other hand, depression in the female partner was not found to influence the rate of birth.

In addition, intake of a class of antidepressants known as non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (non-SSRIs) was also linked to a higher risk of early pregnancy loss among females being treated for infertility, the study appearing in the journal Fertility and Sterility, noted.

However, SSRIs, another class of antidepressants, were not linked to pregnancy loss. Neither depression in the female partner nor the use of any other class of antidepressant were linked to lower pregnancy rates.

 

“Our study provides infertility patients and their physicians with new information to consider when making treatment decisions,” said Esther Eisenberg, at National Institutes of Health’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in Maryland, US.

Among couples being treated for infertility, depression in the male partner was linked to lower pregnancy chances, according to a study.
On the other hand, depression in the female partner was not found to influence the rate of birth. Pixabay

Citing previous studies, the authors noted that 41 per cent of women seeking fertility treatments have symptoms of depression.

Another study of men seeking in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatments reported that nearly 50 per cent experienced depression.

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For the study, the team analysed data for 1,650 women and 1,608 men to evaluate the potential influence of depression in couples seeking non-IVF treatments.

Among the women, 5.96 per cent were rated as having active major depression, compared to 2.28 per cent of the men.

Women using non-SSRIs were roughly 3.5 times as likely to have a first-trimester pregnancy loss, compared to those not using antidepressants. (IANS)