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WASHINGTON - The late Cambodian American writer Anthony Veasna So once reportedly described his work as "post-khmer genocide queer stoner fiction," a narrowly defined niche blown wide open by widespread critical acclaim for his collection of short stories, Afterparties.
So's book is hailed as an exciting and highly original work that captures what it is like to grow up in contemporary American society as a child of Cambodian refugees. Enthusiasm for So's work bridges seemingly dissimilar universes – literary critics who see its universal appeal and the Cambodian American community that sees family.
Uniting the two are So's vivid descriptions – full of humor and compassion – of families grappling with the traumas of surviving the murderous Khmer Rouge while navigating the cultural dislocation and socio-economic challenges of refugee resettlement.
Until now, most depictions of Cambodians in English-language writing and film have been memoirs, nonfiction books and a few well-known movies that focus on an older generation's stories of surviving the Khmer Rouge killing fields -- the "purification" of Cambodia that resulted in the deaths of at least 1.7 million people in a quest by Pol Pot to create an agrarian Marxist utopia in the 1970s.
As The New Yorker magazine observed, "Classics of immigrant storytelling can feel sparse and solemn. The stories in So's Afterparties fill the silence, spilling over with transgressive humor and exuberant language."
"He writes the voices of our Cambodian elders in a way that just feels so accurate," Monica Sok, a poet who was a friend of So's, told a recent panel discussion at Book Passage, a Bay Area bookstore. Sok said that as she read So's work, "I was always thinking like: 'Yeah, I do know an auntie like that, I know an auntie who thinks she knows how I should live my life."
Khmer rouge survivor Image source: wikimediawikimedia
The well-known American literary house Ecco launched Afterparties in early August, printing 100,000 copies after it reportedly signed a $300,000 deal for two books with So, who died in December 2020 of an accidental drug overdose at his home in San Francisco. Another book based on segments from an unfinished novel is expected in 2023.
The New Yorker, which first published some of his early stories, described So's death at 28 as "cutting short a literary career of extraordinary achievement and immense promise."
The headline of a glowing Washington Post review called Afterparties "a bittersweet testament to the late author's talents."
Alexander Torres, the writer who was So's partner for seven years, told VOA Khmer "the humor, the lightheartedness, the jokes, but also the really beautiful descriptions" are what made So's writing unique with a style that "combines humor with high art and with low art."
So's writing captures the second generation's perspective on the effects of lingering trauma and other issues at the heart of the Cambodian American community, while touching on more universal contemporary themes such as the complexities of race, youth and sexuality.
As any Cambodian born to Khmer Rouge survivors can attest, the horror stories and traumas inflicted by the murderous 1970s regime are part of growing up.
So's sharp observations about his parents' coping mechanisms and the effects of their traumas on their children offer an unflinching look at the multigenerational impact of war and violence. Yet, he never overlooks the humor and absurdity this can create for an Americanized second generation. In one incident he describes a father shouting at a teen drinking iced water: "There were no ice cubes in the genocide!"
Afterparties contains nine short stories, including Somaly Serey, Serey Somaly, about the Buddhist belief in reincarnation set in an Alzheimer's and dementia unit. Generational Differences is about a 1989 shooting at Cleveland Elementary School in Stockton, a small California city that is home to one of the largest Cambodian communities in the U.S. Most of the victims were children of Southeast Asian descent. Five died. So's mother, who worked at the school, witnessed the violence.
So's book built on a reputation from work published in various outlets, including a 2018 story in n+1 magazine called Superking Son Scores Again, about a legendary badminton player turned grocery store owner who tries to relive his glory days.
Mark Krotov, the magazine's co-editor and publisher, told VOA Khmer that So's work would likely affect many young writers. "There is so much wisdom in it, there is so much adventure … so much risk-taking, so much beauty, so much intelligence, so much provocation. And all those things in combination suggest to me that this is the book that's going to be remembered," Krotov said in a recent phone interview.
N+1 magazine recently established an award called "Anthony Veasna So's Fiction Prize" in his honor. The first recipient is Trevor Shikaze, a writer for n+1 from Canada.
Cambodian celebrate genocide remembrance Image source: wikimediawikimedia
'Centering' Cambodian Americans
So's parents fled northwestern Cambodia's Battambang province and settled as refugees in Stockton, a river city in California's Central Valley. His father ran an auto repair shop and his mother worked as a civil servant. So was born in Stockton in 1992.Cambodian American intellectuals said So's fiction masterfully conveyed their experiences, family life and sense of community.
"Reading through Afterparties, it was so resonant, it was so refreshing, to see the Cambodian diaspora, which is not represented in literature – apart from the survival literature," said So's friend Sok.
"Anthony is really centering Cambodian people in America and the second generation as well, those who are born in this country and inheriting their parents' traumas, but also trying to find their own way in life," she added.
Sokunthary Svay, a Cambodian American writer and librettist from New York City, told VOA Khmer, "I think what makes his writing particularly important for our diaspora is that he would speak about experiences that a lot of us knew growing up here in the States."
So was from a large family, and all the children were high-achieving students. He graduated from Stanford University, where he enrolled for computer science and graduated with a degree in English, a switch that initially dismayed his family. He earned his MFA in fiction at Syracuse University.
According to his sister, Samantha Lamb, So loved television shows and movies and he discovered his talent while trying to write a script for a television show about a Cambodian American family based on his own life.
Lamb reacted to So's stories with recognition. "OK yes, yes, that is the story about my grandma's sister, that's the story about my aunt," Lamb told VOA Khmer. "This person represents this person in my family."
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum in Phnom Penh, Cambodia Image source: wikimediawikimedia
Lamb said Khmer Rouge-era experiences are a recurrent theme in So's work, as "it is a big part of who we are and growing up my parents talked about it all the time."
In Duplex, a story published in The New Yorker, So wrote, "I had grown up hearing the stories of the genocide, worked to help build our new American identities, and mourned, alongside everyone else in my family, the gaps in our history that could never be recovered."
Lamb said her brother found a way to process this family history and turn it into a new, contemporary experience.
His work "tells the stories of the Cambodian genocide, but from a young person's perspective," Lamb said. "There hasn't really been any book or movie or TV show about Cambodians in the Western eyes, you know in the American eyes, that has been about just like who we are as Cambodian Americans now. So, I think that's what makes it more relatable to people."
According to Lamb, the family continues to struggle with So's death, although they are immensely proud to see his writing being so well received. His father sleeps in So's bed to console himself, while his mother is going to a therapist and their grandmother is claiming So may soon be reincarnated.
"I am pregnant right now,'' Lamb said, ''and it is a boy. … And especially my grandma has been like 'Oh! Anthony is coming back. He is being reincarnated.'" (VOA/RN)
Keywords: Cambodia, Diaspora, East Asia Pacific, Genocide, Khmer Rouge
BY ESTHER JOHN
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Introducing Outback Belly Burner (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
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Outback Belly Burner is safer, more effective, and cheaper than other weight loss products.
What is Outback Belly Burner? (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
M. smithii is a bacterium that increases methane concentration in the gut. As a result, the digestive system is disrupted, leading to the absorption of more calories.
In addition, high methane levels prevent your system from utilizing stored fat and instead depend upon carbs for energy production. The combination of eight Australian-sourced ingredients in the Outback Belly Burner breaks down the M. smithii bacterium, enhances digestion, and supports weight loss.
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How Outback Belly Burner Works (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
The Outback Belly Burner has been developed using the findings of the breakthrough study conducted to uncover the real cause of excessive belly fat.
The Outback Belly Burner is designed to minimise the methane concentration levels by reversing the adverse effects of the Methanobrevibacter smithii bacteria in the intestines.
Outback Belly Burner works by breaking the methane gridlock by terminating the calorie retaining Methanobrevibacter smithii bacteria to allow for more calorie burning and lower methane levels.
Each capsule of the Outback Belly Burner contains a unique blend of ingredients that eliminate the presence of the Methanobrevibacter smithii bacteria. This allows your body to burn the absorbed calories instead of storing them in the form of fats.
Outback Belly Burner Ingredients (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
The manufacturer of Outback Belly Burner has developed a blend of natural and cost-effective ingredients extracted from various dry plants in the Australian desert to give you a natural solution to your weight loss problem. The following ingredients have been put into developing this product.
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This effectively hinders the accumulation of fat in the belly. Secondly, the extract is an effective antibacterial ingredient that will effectively work on the methane accumulating Methanobrevibacter smithii bacteria. This works to lower the methane concentration in the body effectively. Moreover, this extract works to clear the methane gridlock in the body.
The manufacturer uses banaba leaves extract to offer you the following advantages. First of all, the banaba leaves are a natural fat-burning ingredient that breaks down the fat accumulated in the body.
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Red Grape Skin Extract
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The manufacturer adds the berberis extract in this weight loss formula since they are a vital ingredient with a host of benefits to your body. First of all, the extract is responsible for supporting functional digestive health.
This ensures proper absorption and utilisation of calories instead of storing them in fat in the body. Despite this, berberis is responsible for combating the harmful methane gridlock, the biggest culprit to fat gain. Berberis also contain a variety of beneficial plant compounds.
The Panax ginseng is a root medicinal plant used for centuries by the Australian people to treat various diseases.
In modern times, it has been discovered that it works towards cleaning the gut of toxic bacteria, which may include the methane accumulating Methanobrevibacter smithii bacteria. Nevertheless, this extract is responsible for boosting the body’s immune system.
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Cayenne Fruit Extract
This ingredient offers you the following benefits. Besides being a natural metabolism booster in the body, cayenne fruit extract speeds up digestion, hence aiding break the methane gridlock. Moreover, it is rich in vitamin B.
How Much Weight Can You Lose? (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
According to OutbackBellyBurner.com, customers have rapidly lost 50+lbs while taking Outback Belly Burner. Many customers claim to have quickly lost 30 to 50lbs without dieting or exercising after taking Outback Belly Burner.
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As the product’s owner referenced during the official Outback Belly Burner presentation, the ingredients inside this fat burning weight loss pill are highly effective at popping the methane bubble in your gut once and for all, which helps you melt fat from your body faster than butter in a hot pan under the Arizona scorching sun.
Based on all of these results, it appears customers can rapidly lose a significant amount of weight by taking Outback Belly Burner.
Outback Belly Burner Dosage (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
Each bottle of Outback Belly Burner contains 60 capsules of the product to last you thirty days. The manufacturer recommends taking two capsules each day early in the morning before breakfast to kickstart the metabolism process in the body. Users should, nevertheless, consult with a physician before taking it or if they are under other prescriptions.
Outback Belly Burner Price (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
Each bottle contains sixty capsules retailing at $69.00 plus $9.95 shipping. The one-bottle plan is meant to last for thirty days. The manufacturer offers a ninety-day supply of three bottles at a discounted price of $59.00 per bottle and a 180-day plan of six bottles at $49.00 per bottle. Both the three and the six-bottle options have free shipping.
Customers can purchase the product on the manufacturer’s website and make online payments via PayPal, Mastercard, American Express, and Visa. Customer service can be reached by email or phone at:
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Outback Belly Burner Refund Policy (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
Outback Belly Burner is backed by a 180 day money back guarantee. You can request a complete refund on Outback Belly Burner within 6 months (180 days) of your purchase.
If you did not lose a significant amount of weight in a short period of time while taking Outback Belly Burner, or if you’re unsatisfied with the results of Outback Belly Burner for any reason, then you can request a complete refund with no questions asked.
Final Thoughts on Outback Belly Burner (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
There are hundreds of weight loss pills on the market. However, unless you address the root cause of excessive weight gain, the weight loss products can only offer temporary results. Poor gut health and a high methane level make it impossible to shed fat.
Outback Belly Burner claims it has the right Australian ingredients to fight excess weight. Still, it is best to maintain a healthy diet, exercise regularly, and alleviate stress to get outstanding results from Outback Belly Burner. In addition, users should know that individual results vary.
(Disclaimer: This is a sponsored article and includes some commercial links.)
Becoming an entrepreneur is simple because it does not require any qualifications. All you need is to ensure that you have the skills and dedicate yourself to work. You don't start anything when you are perfect, but through experience, you improve day by day until you become perfect. You can be an entrepreneur irrespective of where you are. Because entrepreneurship involves identifying and developing a possible solution, it makes it possible to thrive in any environment. That is because you cannot find a perfect climate and have no challenges. You can also thrive by increasing awareness of your products if you buy Spotify streams when marketing through podcasts.
There are some factors such as culture, technological development, education, and economic development that you expect to see solid entrepreneurial growth in an area. These factors may have either positive or negative effects on entrepreneurship. The positive impact will provide a conducive environment for the emergence of entrepreneurship, while adverse effects will inhibit the growth of entrepreneurship. Let us now look at how each of these factors affects entrepreneurship development.
Capital is a lubricant to the process of production. It is the essential factor for the establishment of enterprises. An increase in business projects in an area leads to an increase in profit which accelerates the process of capital formation. You cannot think of starting a business without capital. Companies require a lot of things, not just skills and experience. However small your business may be, you will need to pay bills and even hire employees. All these cannons run minus capital. That is why it is regarded as a lubricant in the production process. Where there is enough capital, there will be faster development in entrepreneurship.
Where there is enough capital, there will be faster development in entrepreneurship.Unsplash
Every business requires labor for its successful operation. Easy availability of the correct type of workers also affects entrepreneurship. The success of a business is not determined by the number of laborers but the quality of work they deliver. You may have so many people employed in your company, but they provide little work. The location of your business will also affect the job your workers will deliver. It could be because the roads are inaccessible, so they come to work late. This problem of labor immobility can be solved by providing infrastructural facilities, including efficient transportation.
The quality rather than quantity also affects the emergence of entrepreneurship in an area. Most developed countries continue to be ahead because of the quality of their labor force, which encourages entrepreneurship. The effects of labor immobility also determine the labor cost in a country. If the road network is poor, the cost of labor will be high because workers find it complicated moving from one place to the other. Other factors that also affect labor mobility include economy and security. Insecurity in an area makes it hard for people to move from their homes to workplaces for fear of being attacked, which undermines entrepreneurship development in that area.
The availability of raw materials in an area leads to increased entrepreneurship. Remember, you cannot start any business without the raw materials. After you have decided to venture into business, the first thing to think of is what you will be selling. After selecting what to sell, you find out the raw materials required to manufacture the product you want to sell.
The success of a business is not determined by the number of laborers but the quality of work they deliver. Unsplash
Raw materials are the essential ingredient required in production, especially in the manufacturing and processing industries. Remember, entrepreneurs are creative and innovative people. They also think differently in every situation that comes across. The availability of many raw materials in an area will promote entrepreneurship. That is because they will allow entrepreneurs to come up with many creative ways of making different products.
On the other hand, a shortage of raw materials in an area will adversely affect entrepreneurial development. That is because it is hard to come up with new ideas where there are no raw materials. Also, you cannot set up an industry or production firm where there are no or fewer raw materials.
The market is a significant factor for the growth of entrepreneurship. In the modern world, many people are entrepreneurs and more before still dreaming of becoming one in their future. That contributes to the competitive nature of business. Therefore, you cannot start a business without knowing the market and marketing techniques. After deciding on the product you want to sell, the next thing is to check whether there are people who will consume your products or not. If there is, you can continue with the product; if not, you can consider offering another product with the available market.
Even as we talk of the business market, it does not necessarily have to be in your geographical location. Today, the words have gone digital, and there are several ways you can look at the market of your products. As a business person, you are the one to go out of your comfort zone and look for the market. One of the easiest way to market your products is through online platforms such as YouTube. You can even go the extra mile and buy YouTube subscribers to increase the market for your products. The size and composition of the market also matter a lot as far as your business is concerned.
As much as entrepreneurship does not require any qualification, you need basic knowledge.Unsplash
Expansion of entrepreneurship requires properly developed infrastructures such as transport and communication networks. It not only helps enlarge the market but also expands the horizons of business. Properly constructed roads will facilitate the movement of people and goods from one place to the other. Smooth movement of goods and people promotes the growth of entrepreneurship.
Education enables one to understand the outside world and equips him with the basic knowledge and skills to deal with daily problems. As much as entrepreneurship does not require any qualification, you need basic knowledge. The education system has a vital role in impacting you with entrepreneurial values.
Entrepreneurship has made a lot of contributions to society. However, being successful in entrepreneurship is not easy because it requires a lot and involves many challenges. If you put everything needed ready and have the required skills, you can easily overcome the obstacles.
(Disclaimer: This is a sponsored article and includes some commercial links.)
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When you start a business, you will be risking your money for the venture. As an entrepreneur, you should have a great vision and be well focused. People are born with top-tier entrepreneur qualities, while others have to work hard for the qualities They must work hard and work perfectly to make sure their customers are happy and comfortable with your services. It would help if you were keen when making decisions to avoid going wrong. Below are the tips to help you to become a successful entrepreneur if you follow them wisely:
To become a successful entrepreneur, you must have a sense of curiosity, which will help to seek new opportunities. A curious entrepreneur may ask a challenging question and visit different venues. Curiosity helps you learn how to buy real TikTok followers for your brand. Having drive may help you to ask endless questions and challenge the situation. Curiosity helps entrepreneurs develop exciting ideas and new ways of accomplishing tasks, providing innovative service to society. Curiosity helps expand your mind, helping you ask challenging questions and fresh thinking. Mental exercise caused by curiosity makes your mind more robust; the mind is like muscles that become stronger as the exercise continues.
When a new opportunity arises, an entrepreneur should run a test to determine if it is worth going for. If the product fulfils an underserved demand, you must ensure that the customers are willing to pay for it. You need to run a meaningful test and conduct thorough market research to enable you to determine whether it has potential.
Curiosity helps you to ask endless questions and challenge the situation. Unsplash
The business has an ever-changing nature. New challenges and opportunities present themselves at every turn as an iterative process in entrepreneurship. It is ideal to be prepared in every scenario. To keep moving forward and adapt to your business, entrepreneurs should evaluate situations when an expected change occurs. An entrepreneur must adapt well to the changes coming in the market and demand. It is suitable for successful Entrepreneurs to focus on their goals to help them achieve them.
To become successful as an entrepreneur, you need to make difficult decisions and stand with them. As a leader, you have to take the responsibility of guiding the trajectory of their business. It is not a must that you are decisive. You must have the confidence to make challenging decisions and see them through to be an entrepreneur. The decision you take corrective action is essential when the outcomes turn unfavorable.
As a great entrepreneur, you are aware of your weaknesses and strengths. Team building should build well-rounded teams that complement their abilities instead of letting shortcomings that hold them back. The entrepreneurial team is the one that drives the venture toward success. It is advisable to connect yourself with talents and contribute to a common goal when starting your own business.
Team building to build well-rounded teams that complement their abilities.Unsplash
Entrepreneurship is frequently associated with risk. Launching a venture requires the entrepreneur to know the steps to minimize the risk. Many things can go right instead of wrong when launching a new venture. For the companies to benefit from upside, an entrepreneur must manage the relationship between risk and reward. Comfortable with failure An entrepreneur needs a certain level of comfort with failure. About 75%of start-up entrepreneurs fail due to a lack of motivation and focus. Successful entrepreneurs learn from their mistakes, continue asking questions, and persist until they reach their goals.
Most entrepreneurs support the innovation idea that goes hand in hand with entrepreneurship. Existing the service and drastically improving them to meet the market's changing needs helps the start- up to become successful. Some entrepreneurs possess innovation, although it is a strategic mindset that can be cultivated. Developing your thinking skills enables you to spot innovative positions in your venture of success and opportunities.
8.Long term focus
Most of them see entrepreneurship as a process of starting a business. The early stages of launching a venture are critical to its success. When the business is operational, the process does not end at once. It is tough to grow a sustainable and substantial business, but starting a business is very easy.
An entrepreneur must manage the relationship between risk and reward.Pixabay
Successful entrepreneurs must have a sense of curiosity to help them seek opportunities. Curiosity helps the entrepreneur ask challenging questions and explore different places. Entrepreneurs should learn to run to test and determine whether to go for it when a new opportunity arises. You need to run a severe test and conduct thorough market research to help you determine whether it has potential. Business nature is ever-changing. Making difficult decisions and standing with them helps to become a successful entrepreneur. You should have confidence and make challenging decisions and see them through. To become a great entrepreneur, you should be aware of your weaknesses and strengths.
(Disclaimer: This is a sponsored article and includes some commercial links.)
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