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Our present consumptive life style is totally unsustainable. For example an average American consumes 350 Gigajules/year-the highest per capita energy in the world. If every person on this earth has the same wasteful life style as an American then we will require 4 earths to sustain it.
Contrast to this with 18 GJ/yr used by an average Indian which is about 5% that of an American. A middle path between U.S. and Indian energy consumption has to be found so that we have sustainable lifestyle. One can live very decently in about 50-70 GJ per person/yr energy consumption. This amount of energy fueled the life style of Europeans in 1970s which was comfortable and with modern high technologies is achievable. If every citizen of this planet consumes this much energy then earth can support all its inhabitants. Thus for a sustainable India and possibly the world we need to change our life style and at the same time look for alternative sources of energy to sustain it.
Most of the R&D for getting a substitute for oil is based on getting it from biomass which is land based. Thus bio fuels are being produced from crops like corn, sweet sorghum, sugarcane, jatropha etc. Recently research is more focused on using biomass residues via cellulose conversion to ethanol. Since the people who own the cars have money, farming in some parts of the world is being driven to produce fuel rather than food. This is creating serious food shortages and consequent price rise in commodities. Thus use of land to produce bio fuels rather than food has dangerous consequences for the world.
All the life on this planet earth is solar energy based. It produces biomass for our food; produces oil from million years of stored biomass; produces wind and is also responsible for our rain and hence all our water supply. As we advance technologically we will follow this existing evolutionary strategy of life. Thus we will live off sustainably from our energy income (land based solar energy) rather than the capital (fossil fuels or stored solar energy). Use of solar energy together with agricultural residues therefore appears to be the best solution to live sustainably off the land.
All the solar based energies like direct solar or biomass are land or area based. Thus it is useful to have a perspective on their utilization and conversion efficiencies. Also the modern industrial society is electricity based, hence we like to convert all forms of primary energy (like oil, coal, nuclear, solar etc.) into electricity.
Direct conversion of solar energy into electricity either through photovoltaic (PV) cells or through thermal power systems is done at an overall conversion efficiency of 10 to 15% respectively. On the other hand conversion of solar energy to electricity through biomass (either through direct combustion in power plants or through alcohol or biodiesel based engine route) is extremely inefficient with efficiencies ranging from 0.05 to 0.1%. This low efficiency results because the photosynthetic efficiency of converting solar energy into biomass is < 1%. Thus direct conversion of solar into electricity is about 100 to 300 times more efficient than converting biomass into electricity! Consequently the area reduction for energy production by using direct solar energy will be 100-300 times. This is a huge area which can become free for food and chemicals production from biomass – something that is necessary for long term sustainability of mankind.
It is also interesting to note that solar thermal electricity generation can produce all the electricity (~20,000 MW) that the controversial nuclear deal will help produce from an area of 640 km2or that of just one taluka. Besides the plants can be set up in couple of years time as opposed to about 10 years or so that a nuclear plant takes to be setup. Also the energy (solar) falls on our country and there is also no problem of disposal of nuclear waste.
Nevertheless conversion of solar energy directly into electricity is presently not cheap since the capital cost is high and also the technology (for solar thermal) is still maturing. Presently there are two methods of producing electricity from solar thermal. In one system parabolic mirrors concentrate solar energy on to a tube which carries high temperature oil. This heats the oil to around 4000C which in turn produces steam to drive a turbine for electricity generation. In the other system called “Power Tower” tracking mirrors concentrate solar energy on to a tower where it heats the salt to around 10000C which in turn produces steam for turbines. Storage of high temperature oil and salt is still not perfected.
In fact the biggest problem in solar systems is storage of energy when sun is not shinning either during night or in the rainy season. This problem is not there in biomass since the energy is stored in biomass itself. Thus tremendous R&D is needed in battery storage for PV systems and thermal storage for solar thermal conversion systems. Consequently the funding for solar energy thermal systems should match that for biofuels.
In India we are hardly doing anything in the use of solar energy for electricity production via thermal route. Whereas close to 1000 MW is already being generated in U.S. and Europe via this method and the cost of electricity generation is coming down and is quite close to that from coal based power plants.
Similarly agricultural residues available in India can presently produce close to 80,000 MW of electricity or nearly 50% of total installed capacity in the country. Nevertheless for the improvement of land fertility it is necessary that most of these residues should be used as fertilizer. Thus emphasis should be put more on solar thermal electricity.
However all these energy development strategies will become untenable if we follow the U.S. life style and do not put a cap on our greed for materials, resources and energy. Present economic models are based on increased consumption and encourage greed. Ever increasing choices available to an average person fuel the greed impulse since the fear of missing out is very high. Spirituality can help in keeping our greed for materials and resources in check since it helps us become internally secure and hence less greedy.
Spirituality is the state of mind that makes us look deeply into ourselves or the spirit and gives a certain perspective in life. As a person progresses on the path of spirituality his or her priorities in life change. The focus of life shifts more towards getting personal happiness through mental peace and is less on material needs and desires and more towards sustainability. Recent examples of Mahatma Gandhi and Einstein have shown that with very few needs and living very simply they were able to produce the highest quality of thought.
The most important mantra in India is the Gayatri Mantra. It invokes the Sun God and requests him to give us wisdom and enlightenment so that we can live better lives. Use of solar energy to produce electricity via high technology and reducing our greed through spirituality is the best way to live according to its ideal. Indeed a combination of high technology together with spiritual growth will be a new paradigm of sustainable development.
(The author is the Director and Hon. Secretary Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute (NARI). He could be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org)
Remember, the right language is what matters for your app in the first place.
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By- Joseph Collins
An energy meter, also known as a Watt-Hour Meter, is a device that monitors the level of electrical energy or gas consumed by users. Utilities are among the agencies that place these devices in various locations such as houses, businesses, organizations, and commercial properties to charge for the power consumed. You can always know how much is gas or electric cheaper by contacting a utility company.
Electronic Energy Meters
When compared to traditional mechanical meters, these types of measuring equipment are more accurate, have a faster processing time, and are more trustworthy. When attached to a source, it uses less power and begins measuring immediately.
Analog or digital meters are both possible. Analog meters transform energy to proportionate frequency or pulse rate, which is then combined by counters inside the device. A high-end processor directly calculates power in a digital electric meter.
Logic circuits combine the power to obtain the energy as well as for testing and certification purposes. The frequency or pulse rate is then calculated.
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Smart Energy Meters
It is a cutting-edge metering technique that entails installing intelligent meters that read, process, and relay information to clients. It monitors energy usage, changes the supply to consumers remotely, and digitally manages the maximum energy usage.
For greater performance, smart metering systems make use of modern metering infrastructure system technology. These meters limit the number of times you have to go to the place to get your monthly reading.
In these smart meters, modems are utilized to enable communication technologies like phone, wireless, fiber cable, and power line communications. Another benefit of smart metering is that it eliminates the possibility of tampering with energy meters, which could lead to unlawful power usage.
An energy meter, also known as a Watt-Hour Meter, is a device that monitors the level of electrical energy or gas consumed by users. | Wikimedia
Working of The Meter
The conventional electric meter looks like a clock and keeps track of how much electricity you consume. A series of microscopic gears inside the meter moves as your home takes electricity from the power wires. The numbers on your meter that you notice when you look at it indicate the number of revolutions.
The quantity of electricity utilized determines the speed at which the rotations occur. The velocity of moving gas in the pipeline is measured by a gas meter. As the gas flow rate increases, the dials speed up.
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How Often is Meter Read?
Unless the meter is a consumer-ready meter, the government will demand utility companies read user meters quarterly. If the consumer checks the meter, the utility is asked to read it at least once a year. Almost every month, many utilities try and read their customers' meters.
If the meter isn't read, the utility might issue an estimated charge based on the previous usage. Keep bushes and plants away from the meter and allow access to the meter reader if your meter is within your home. All utilities demand their meter readers to have an employment ID as a security measure.
Smart meters limit the number of times you have to go to the place to get your monthly reading. | Wikimedia
Responsibility of Meter
The utility provider is in charge of meter installation as well as the gas and electric lines that go up to the meter. The wires from the meter to the customer's premises are his responsibility.Please call your gas or electric utility if your meter is broken or displays evidence of tampering. Manipulation with a meter is prohibited and may result in service termination, legal punishment, or both.
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A hilarious rhyme that children often chant cheerily while jumping around, Jack and Jill is another example of the dark history covered up in light-hearted rhyme. Instead of England though, this is a rhyme that sheds light on the history of France.
Unlike other rhymes, the rhyme is part fiction and part history, since only the first two lines can be taken as an allusion to the past.
"Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water,
Jack fell down and broke his crown,
And Jill came tumbling after."
King Louis XIV ruled over France in the late 18th century and was called out for treason. He had failed to uphold the economy of France. His spouse Marie Antoinette was an equally powerful influence in the monarchy but could not do anything when her husband was convicted.
King Louis XIV of France Image source: wikimedia commons
The French are famous for the guillotine, and Louis XIV was beheaded on this device. This act of executing a monarch is why the rhyme has the line "Jack fell down and broke his crown". The guillotine, at this point in history, was kept outside the city, and the journey to it was long and tedious. It was ideally located on a hill, so that the entire city of Paris could witness the execution of the accused.
Louise XIV is believed to have been dressed and taken on the long journey up to the guillotine, where his hair was cut off and he had to renounce his authority. He bid farewell to his friends and was followed up the hill by a crowd holding pikes and bayonets, to prevent his escape. He was then executed as the last monarch of France.
Death by guillotine was the most terrifying way to execute a criminal Image source: wikimedia commons
A few months later, when the hue and cry of Louis XIV's death has died down a little, but the political situation of France was no better, his wife, Marie Antoinette was also executed at the guillotine for her role in the fall of France. And this event alludes to the line, "Jill came tumbling after".
The rest of the rhyme is a fictional account of a moralistic idea for children, as a way to tell them to be careful of where they engage in play. Since a large part of the rhyme seems like a story of two children who have had an accident in play, that is how the rhyme has survived and the history behind it, has been forgotten.
Keywords: Marie Antoinette, Louise XIV, Guillotine, France, Nursery Rhymes, Monarchy