Friday October 19, 2018

‘Higher education in Indian languages aspirational’

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Rohan Joshi, first from the left (Image: Sapan Kapoor, NewsGram)
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New Delhi: In a bid to propose improvements to the New Education Policy that the Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD) is currently developing to make India a knowledge superpower, seventh School Choice National Conference took place in the national capital on Saturday. NewsGram spoke to Rohan Joshi, the Head of the Research vertical of Centre for Civil Society, on the need to provide education to children in Indian languages.

We also asked him whether his organization would urge the government to work in this direction in the future. Joshi said they would not recommend the government to have higher education in mother tongues although it was “certainly aspirational.”

The School Choice is an initiative of Centre for Civil Society to advocate element of competition in education space through policy reform and create an environment where every child has the Right to Education of Choice.

Here’s the interview with Rohan Joshi.

Q: Studies show that children learn the best in their mother tongue. If a child in South Korea can become a doctor after studying in Korean, why cannot a boy in a Tamil Nadu hamlet become one after studying in Tamil? What are your views on this?

Ans: It’s not a factual statement to make that children are not learning in their mother tongues because apart from a few states we actually don’t have government English medium schools. So the children who attend the government schools essentially study in the vernacular medium that is in their mother tongue at primary level.

Q: That’s at the primary level. Why should not they get the chance to pursue higher studies in their mother tongues? Why can’t students learn science in their own languages?

Ans: The clear issue here is having that curriculum developed in mother tongues. We ought to remember that this also has a correlation with livelihoods of the people because what happens is that at the primary stage it is more about the acquisition of competency, skills and knowledge. However, as you go towards higher education it starts getting far more driven by livelihood like what do they earn out of it.

And unfortunately, or fortunately, the language of transaction and livelihood at the moment is English. And it is actually true about a lot more other countries, not just India, where we can see a clear shift towards English medium education. I am just not talking about developing countries here but also about developed countries. For instance, in Spain and Italy where knowledge is available in Spanish and Italian, the conspicuous shift is towards English medium education.

Q: But countries like China seem to be doing pretty well by learning in their own language.

Ans: If you look at overall data China is an outlier. China is not a standard example because a shift is happening towards English there as well. Is it good or bad? I would say if it is serving the purpose and as you move up the education ladder the parental expectation is that children should be equipped with necessary skills for the job roles they would be performing in the near future.

Q: New Education Policy aims to provide affordable, quality education to all the children of India, irrespective of their backgrounds. How can a costly English education achieve this purpose?

Ans: It is not that English education is costly. Higher education, in general, is expensive. So even if it is a vernacular medium education, there’s no guarantee that it is going to be cheap.

Q: Should we make a shift towards learning in our mother tongues instead of a foreign language like English?

Ans: No, I do not think English is a foreign language anymore in India because we have pretty much internalized it. It is not this or that. You can actually teach both, English and mother tongue. Human beings are multilingual creatures and are capable of learning many languages. Is higher education in mother tongue good? Is it aspirational? It is certainly aspirational. I am not saying children should not have education in the mother tongue; they must have an option. At the same time making it compulsory is not the way because then you try to force it upon parents who do not seem to be willing for this at the moment.

Q: Would you recommend the government to chalk out a plan to have education in Indian languages?

Ans: For higher education ‘no’ and for school education definitely ‘yes’. As for higher education, it is not because we do not want to, but because that is not a concern for us. It’s an aspiration. We understand that people want their language to advance. The issue is we put too much burden on education to serve all the purposes. For instance, if people wish to show love for their language, it can also happen outside schools. Isn’t it?

We would like the New Education Policy to focus on the quality of education among other things. That is the need of the hour.

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History of Case Study – from Columbus to Nowadays

After the introduction of the new teaching method, the Harvard Business School immediately sensed an influx of students.

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Education concept: closed book with Red Head With Lightbulb icon and text Case Study on floor, white background, 3d render

Christopher Columbus Langdell is considered the founder of the case method. History of case study starts when he becomes a dean in Harvard University. Langdell practically opened a new field in teaching, much like his famous namesake discovered America in his time. In the same way, at first he had to face difficulties, distrust and resistance of supporters of traditional education. Langdell served as dean of the law school at Harvard University. He himself was a graduate of this school, having studied there twice the allotted time and spent the extra time working at the Harvard Library. Langdell carefully studied numerous court cases and had a truly encyclopedic knowledge in this area.

At that time, students at law schools were studying by listening to lectures and studying textbooks, in which interpretations of normative acts were collected, and best practices of applying laws were described. Students memorized the material and then reproduced it in front of the teacher in class. They got this experience much later when they started practicing real practice. Langdell suggested the opposite approach, interrupting the tradition of constant cramming. Having become a dean in 1870, he immediately began to implement the case-study method — a method of analyzing real situations, inviting students to familiarize themselves with the original materials of the case and draw their own conclusion. To facilitate this work, he prepared a special collection of training materials — cases, providing each case with a small two-page introduction. In the classroom, students with the help of Langdell discussed the facts, revealed controversial points, studied the arguments of the parties, talked about the doctrines and principles underlying the case, and compared them with other legal cases.

Case Study
The difficulty was that the majority of teachers were scientists and did not have practical business experience and hence didn’t have good Case Study Material

Innovation = Conflict

At first, the innovation met sharp resistance and outrage from the students. Speaking on a given topic turned out to be much more difficult than simply reproducing a learned text. Many of the students “voted with their feet” — during the first three years of the introduction of the new method, the number of applicants decreased from 165 to 117.

Nevertheless, Langdell retained his post, and by 1895 the case study method was firmly

established in the Harvard Law School, and with it in six elite law universities (in Columbia, Yale, Chicago, and others). By the 1920s, the method of handling cases from real court practice became fundamental in legal education and remains so to this day.

First business cases

In the business environment cases also came from Harvard. In 1908, the Harvard Business School (HBS) was founded, which began to award Master’s degrees in business (Master of Business Administration). At first, things were not going very smoothly – “we had to deal with sponsors from the business community, not at all enthusiastic, loud and skeptical students, jealous and cynical university colleagues, and trustees, not to mention financial problems.” Only eight of the thirty-three students of the first set reached the second year of study.

Case Study
By the 1920s, the method of handling cases from real court practice became fundamental in legal education and remains so to this day and is used as case study

The idea to build training around the discussion of problems related to business management arose from the first dean of the school, Edwin Gay, and the first trial course entitled The Art of Doing Business was read in 1912.

Professors Were Smart… But not Enough

The difficulty was that the majority of teachers were scientists and did not have practical business experience. Therefore, at first, managing managers and directors of large firms, owners of their own companies, who shared real situations with their audiences, were invited to the Harvard Business School. Students analyzed what they heard and two days later submitted written reports with recommendations for solving the problem, and then discussed them in the audience.

However, the case-based method was finally established in HBS only half a century after its invention by Langdell — in the 1920s, when a graduate of the Harvard Law School, corporate finance specialist Wallace Donham was appointed dean. Donham spoke of his work this way: “I did not have theoretical knowledge in business, and my teachers, as I found out, had little practical experience in this field. To get used to each other was very problematic.

Donham himself was an ardent supporter of the use of the case method. The only obstacle was the lack of ready-made materials like published collections of court decisions. Donham convinced his colleague, marketing professor Melvin Copeland, to remake his training program as a pilot project and include a description of several real business problems. Published in September 1920, this program is considered the first collection of business cases. Students discussed the situation in the audience, analyzed it from different sides and offered solutions. Unlike legal cases, business cases often did not have a ready answer, and students learned to act in the face of uncertainty, tight deadlines and a lack of information.

case study
Unlike legal cases, business cases often did not have a ready answer, and students learned to act in the face of uncertainty, tight deadlines and a lack of information, therefore case study are crucial

After the introduction of the new teaching method, the Harvard Business School immediately sensed an influx of students: their number increased from 30–50 annually accepted applicants to 500 in 1932.

Top-9 Facts about Case Studies

  1. The teachers of the Harvard Business School (HBS) wrote about 80% of the cases used for training around the world.
  2. Each year, HBS teachers create about 350 cases on the basis of real business situations. It takes from one to four months to write a case.
  3. The main characters of the cases are mostly men (91%); in the next five years, HBS plans to increase the number of female characters in cases up to 20%
  4. At the height of the Second World War, HBS teachers wrote 600 custom case studies for military personnel.
  5. On average, in two years, every MBA student at HBS studies 500-600 cases and spends 80-90% of his time doing it.
  6. In HBS, there is a common practice when a real prototype of the main character of a case is present during the analysis (personally or in video mode), answers students’ questions, comments on their decision and explains how and why he acted in a real situation.
  7. In May 2008, HBS decided to diversify the format of cases, make them more elegant, literary, with a bright cover and sell them as books near cash desks in stores. Similar cases can be targeted, for example, for housewives. For this, HBS has already signed a contract with a famous American novelist Danielle Steel.
  8. It is believed that most of the heroes of the cases are top managers. However, there are also cases dedicated to athletes, cultural figures, community leaders and government officials. So, some famous cases are devoted to the former head coach of Manchester United, Sir Alex Ferguson, tennis player Maria Sharapova, and even Lady Gaga.
  9. HBS has Kids Case Discussions — a special children’s class for children of graduates. University professors teach classes, and children discuss real, un-adapted Harvard cases with them.

This article is provided by an expert from GetCaseStudy.com – professional custom case study writing service.