The Centre has declared two wildlife sanctuaries near Mumbai as ‘Eco-Sensitive Zone'(ESZ), according to Union Minister for Environment Prakash Javadekar.
There are 11 more such ESZs in Tamil Nadu and Chhattisgarh,
The two wildlife sanctuaries in Maharashtra are Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary (TWLS) and Tansa Wildlife Santuary (TWS), both lush green areas spread across several hundred square kms in Palghar and Thane districts adjoining Mumbai. They also serve as the catchment areas for lakes and reservoirs supplying drinking water to the country’s commercial capital.
“I have approved the final ESZ notification in respect of TWLS in Maharashtra. This will help scientific conservation of eco-systems and at the same time will give relief to farmers, artisans, rural people, small businesses in the area between final ESZ and 10 km from the protected areas, which was banned earlier,” Javadekar said in tweets on Friday.
The total protected area of the TWLS is around 86 sq km and will have the ESZ of 67 sq km. For the TWS, the total protected area would be around 305 sq kms with the ESZ of around 490 sq km which will also include 150 villages.
Both the TWLS and TWS are ranked as major habitats for several wildlife, including leopards.
The Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Borivali, which is sprawled across Mumbai’s north-east and north-western suburbs, itself is home to around 45 leopards, different varieties of deer, Sambar, four-horned Antelope, Rhesus Macaque, Bonnet Macaque, monkeys, grey Langur, Indian Flying Fox, spot-Striped Hyena and a large number of birds and insects.
Leopards often stray into the suburban residential areas like Dahisar, Borivali, Kandivali, Malad, Goregaon, Jogeshwari, Andheri, Powai, Bhandup, Kanjurmarg and Mulund, and other green areas in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region.
Experts said that declaring an ESZ, or a buffer zone, around a wildlife reserve would help conserve the ecosystem since only agriculture, a few small scale industries and minor infra-works are permitted within the ESZ.
Maharashtra had proposed the ESZ around TWLS and TWS forests in August 2016. (IANS)
A deadly game of survival is on in the Sambhar lake of Rajasthan for decades — salt versus birds. The result came a few days back: thousands of birds were seen floating dead in the lake and their carcasses scattered on the edge of the 12 km catchment area.
The dead birds seen floating in this largest inland salt lake in the country, include plovers, common coot, black winged stilt, northern shovelers, ruddy shelduck, and pied avocet among many other migratory birds.
Harsh Vardhan, a renowned environmentalist, told IANS that no forest department official has ever been appointed to look after the lake. The lake comes under the Hindustan Salt Limited, a public limited enterprise formed in the post independence era to manufacture salt. Its job is to manufacture salt. So who should look after the lake; this has never been decided, he said.
The lake has not been handed to the forest department, and the area, where birds come, is no one’s land. Sambhar lake may be a part of the Hindustan Salt Ltd, but the company has nothing to do with the birds, he says.
The chief wildlife warden Arindam Tomar has maintained silence over the issue.
Even, Principal secretary, forest and environment Shreya Guha has washed her hands off the issue. All that she did was to a give statement that the Jaipur and Nagaur District Collectors have been asked to remove the bodies. She added that 4,800 birds have been dead till date, which is disputed by experts like Harsh Vardhan, who say that counting is not easy in the vast area.
Chief minister Ashok Gehlot on Thursday held a meeting on the issue.
Meanwhile, Harsh Vardhan questioned the presence of several private salt miners and entrepreneurs, who have set shops in and around the lake. “They dig tube wells which suck water from the land making it parched. The remaining water gets evaporated leaving crystal of salts which are packed and sold in gunny bags,” he said.
Lack of water and drought has haunted Sambhar lake for years. State government has been spending huge money to woo tourists through activities like mobiking, balloning, race, Bollywood shoots, etc. A resort on the rim of the lake showcases salt manufacturing for the tourists. Crores of Rupees have been spent on the upkeep of the narrow gauge train and watch stations, but birds and conversation issues were always overlooked.
As Sambhar lake went dry, concentration of salt deposits came up within it. The water from surrounding rivers, meant to flow into the lake, was diverted by the miners.
After witnessing drought for many years, this year the lake, however, brimmed with water due to heavy rains. The inflow made the water toxic due to the change in its alkalinity.
The excessive salt in the water led to the poisoning, causing hypernectremia, which is water deprivation due to sodium intoxication, Vardhan said.
It seems birds which came in high numbers due to high water quantity this season died due to hypernectermia after consuming their feed which is the planktons, the microrganisms found in water.
The only step that has ever been taken by any government in the state was in 1981 when it was decided to designate the site as wetland and was renamed as the Ramsar site.
According to an estimate, around 60,000 birds visited the lake in a year which has come down to less than 20,000.
Vardhan says that if the lake remains with the Hindustan Salt Limited, which has been a loss making unit since years or if it is handed over to the private operators, who do excessive mining of water, then the lake and the birds are sure to die.