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Chasing Eclipses Around the World is a Way of Living: A Small Group of People Cannot Get Enough of it
Washington D.C. [USA], August 21, 2017: While Monday’s total solar eclipse in the U.S. will be a once-in-a-lifetime sky show for millions, there’s a small group of people who have experienced it all before and they can’t get enough of it.
Glenn Schneider has seen 33. Fred Espenak has watched 28. Donald Liebenberg has logged 26. For newbie Kate Russo, it’s 10 and counting.
These veteran eclipse chasers spend lots of money and craft intricate plans all to experience another mid-day darkening of the sky. Many work in science and related fields and they’ll travel around the world, even to Antarctica, to see one more.
“I do this not so much as an avocation, but as an addiction,” said Schneider, a University of Arizona astronomy professor.
Russo, a psychologist in Ireland who wrote a book about people’s eclipse experiences, said some people find the experience life-changing. That happened to her.
“Eclipse chasing isn’t just a hobby or interest,” Russo wrote in an email from Wyoming, where she traveled to see Monday’s eclipse. “Eclipse chasing is a way of life. It becomes who you are.”
Monday’s eclipse will cut a 70-mile-wide (112-kilometer) path of totality across the country, when the moon moves between Earth and the sun, blocking it for as much as 2 1/2 minutes. It’s the first coast-to-coast full eclipse since 1918. Many of the big eclipse chasers are planning to be in Oregon or Wyoming because there’s a better chance of clear weather there in August. They’ll be ready to drive hundreds of miles if need be to find good weather.
Total solar eclipses happen on average every 18 months or so, but they usually aren’t near easy-to-drive highways. Norma Liebenberg has been to a dozen, mostly joining her avid eclipse watcher husband, Donald, in remote places like Libya, Zambia and Western China.
“It’s sort of mind-boggling that there are 1,000 people out in these isolated places to see it,” she said. She even forgave her husband when he missed their first anniversary to go to a clouded-out eclipse in the South Pacific.
There’s a compulsiveness to eclipse chasers, especially photographers, said Dr. Gordon Telepun, an Alabama plastic surgeon who has seen only three.
“It’s very anxiety-producing, it’s very challenging,” said Telepun, who even developed a talking phone app that times an eclipse so photographers don’t miss anything. “It’s an adrenaline rush man, I’m telling you.”
Telepun said his hero is “Mr. Eclipse” Espenak, a retired NASA astrophysicist, who explains why chasers are the way they are.
“It’s the closest any of us will come to being an astronaut and being in space,” Espenak said.
Eclipse chasers say their first always hooks them.
Schneider, who got a telescope at age 5, planned out his first eclipse precisely. He was 14 in 1970 and he traveled from New York City to East Carolina University’s stadium. He had choreographed how he was going to spend the 2 minutes 53 seconds of darkness. Then came the moment.
“I was frozen in place,” he recalled. “I had binoculars around my neck for two and a half minutes and I never picked them up.”
When it was over “I was shaking. I was crying. I was overwhelmed,” he said. “It was at that instant when I said ‘Yeah, this is what I’m going to do with the rest of my life’.”
Now Schneider takes his grown daughter with him to eclipses. And he invented what he calls the “lug-o-scope,” a telescope that folds into its own luggage to make his eclipse chasing easier.
“Flexibility is probably No. 1,” Schneider said. “Keeping your options and open and be ready to take that option if that’s what’s needed.”
A veteran of 28 eclipses, Espenak often leads groups of 50 some people to view eclipses, lecturing both about the beauty and the science. Except when the hour grows close and the skies get dark, he goes silent.
“On eclipse day he’s all business. He does not want to be diverted from his checklist of everything he wants to do,” explains University of Tennessee’s Mark Littmann, co-author with Espenak of the book “Totality.” “It’s like you’re kind of trying to chat with a pilot coming in for an emergency landing. It isn’t that he’s just not friendly, it’s just not the right time anymore.”
Donald Liebenberg has seen and blogged about his 26 eclipses for Clemson University, where he does research. He holds the record for most time in totality because the retired federal scientist used to view them by airplane whenever possible. In 1973, he convinced the French to let him use the supersonic Concorde for eclipse viewing and he flew at twice the speed of sound. He got 74 minutes of eclipse time in that one flight.
After spending more than 60 years flying around the world, this time the Liebenbergs are only going as far as their driveway.
This eclipse is coming directly to them in South Carolina.
Achieving soft, beautiful and happy skin is a dream for most of us or at least a long-pending item on our wish list. While there are lot of suggestions, a laundry list of do's and don'ts to follow, there are some basics that don't change. We have to understand that happy skin is a holistic process that requires one to work on building healthy habits combined with good skincare.
Here's a ready reckoner by ITC Fiama of tried and tested skincare habits that will serve as a reminder that skincare doesn't need to be complicated, it just needs to be consistent.
* Cleanse & Moisturise -- The first and the simplest step towards healthy skin is regular cleansing and moisturising, it is advisable to use a moisturizing body soap that ensures your skin gets the right nutrients and remains supple and nourished. A great product suited to this requirement is Fiama Gel Bathing Bar, which is enriched with nature's goodness. Fiama's bathing bars come in 5 variants and they help moisturize the skin making it appear soft, happy and bouncy.
The first and the simplest step towards healthy skin is regular cleansing and moisturising. | Photo by Humphrey Muleba on Unsplash
* Balanced Diet -- Healthy skin is an outcome of a balanced diet. The food we eat provides the building blocks for healthy functioning of our bodies. Our diet has everything to do with the health of our skin. The nutrients, minerals, and proteins found in food support collagen production and healthy cell membranes, and protect skin from harmful stressors, such as UV exposure.
Healthy skin is an outcome of a balanced diet. | Photo by Sam Moqadam on Unsplash
* Smile -- While most of us hate the idea of having crow's eyes and lines while we smile. We rarely realize the benefits of a simple smile. When we smile the blood flow gets better, and the skin receives more oxygen and nutrients. This can help you develop a healthier complexion alternately it also leaves you stress free making you look happy and radiant.
When we smile the blood flow gets better, and the skin receives more oxygen and nutrients. | Photo by Lesly Juarez on Unsplash
* Drink Enough H20 -- With our bodies comprising of 70 per cent water, drinking sufficient amount of water is the easiest way to keep your skin healthy and hydrated. Drinking adequate water helps flush out toxins from our bodies, preventing pimples and acne and boosting the skin's elasticity. No wonder, water is called the elixir of life.
Drinking adequate water helps flush out toxins from our bodies, preventing pimples and acne and boosting the skin's elasticity. | Photo by Bluewater Sweden on Unsplash
* Move Your Body -- Along with cleansing and proper nutrition, another aspect which is important for happy skin is movement. When we move or burn calories, the body produces chemicals called endorphins. These endorphins interact with the receptors in the brain and trigger positive feelings and happy thoughts. This feeling of pure happiness and joy reflects on the skin, thus having the power to completely change your mood and keep you and your skin beaming. (IANS/ MBI)
When we move or burn calories, the body produces chemicals called endorphins. | Photo by Joanna Nix-Walkup on Unsplash
Keywords: Skin, soft, happy, healthy, food, move, calories, water, smile, moisturise, water, cleanse
It is true that street performances has been existing in India since ancient times. But, it was Philip Astley who brought the concept of circus in India in the 1880s. Interestingly, Astley is known as the father of modern circus.
Birth of the Great Indian Circus
In 1879, the Royal Italian Circus by Giuseppe Chiarini came to India. Before any of his shows, he would often say that India did not have a proper circus, and apparently, the country would have to wait for many years in order to develop the "circus trend".
Once, Balasahib Patwardhan, who was the king of the Kurundwad state of Sangli (today's Kolhapur) went to watch the circus. He was accompanied by Vishnupant Chatre, who was the keeper of his stable and also a riding master at the stables. As it was ritual, before starting with any performance, Chiarini used to challenge the audience by saying, "a thousand British Indian rupees and a horse would be given to anyone who would repeat his daring effects within six months". Interestingly, this time, the challenge was accepted by Chatre, and he announced that he will perform the same in Kurundwad within three months. And if he fails, he promised Chiarini that he would return "ten thousand British Indian rupees and top ten horses. On March 20, 1880, Chatre came to perform his circus at the Kurundwad Palace Grounds. But Chiarini did not come to see it.
Soon after this, Vishnupant Chatre bought most of the circus equipment from Chiarini, and within a year, he formed a new circus company called the "Great Indian Circus". This is referred to as the first circus company in India. Chatre's Great Indian Circus toured various parts of India and the world. Later on, Chatre merged his circus company with his cousin's company to launch a new company by the name of "Karlekar Grand Circus".
Other Famous Circuses of India
After the coming of Karlekar Grand Circus, many circuses came into being in India. In 1904, the Malabar Grand Circus, which was the first circus company in Kerala came into being under the leadership of Pariyali Kannan. Another circus named the Great Royal Circus was started in 1909. Though, its previous name was Madhuskar's Circus. One of the famous circuses of India was also the Grand Bombay Circus which was founded in the year 1920 by Baburao Kadam. Since a long time, tradition of circus as an art has been prevalent in India, though slight decline in its practice is evident now.
Keywords: India, Circus, Tradition, Art, Performance, Great Indian Circus, Philip Astley, Culture
By- Naman Rastogi
The first thing to understand about API security testing is that it is not a one-size-fits-all process. Testers must take into account the scope of the project, as well as the specific needs of developers and end-users. This article will provide you with some basic guidelines for an API security testing program. It will also outline some API security tests that you should consider including in your API testing process.
API security testing is a process that checks API functions for security vulnerabilities. These tests are intended to identify problems with the API's design, functionality, and implementation. API security testing is a proactive way to check the API for potential exploits.
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Tests To Include in API Security Testing
The API's parameter tampering test is a way to check any API calls that contain parameters for known attack patterns. The API security testing tool you use should provide warning alerts when it finds these types of vulnerability points.
Parameter tampering occurs because developers aren't properly securing the input data before it enters an API call from another application or web service. This gives attackers the ability to tamper with API input data. You can checkout this detailed guide on How to Perform Web Application Testing
Testing for API parameter tampering can include looking at all variables within API calls and checking whether they need to exist or not. In your tests, you'll also want to check how values are passed into API calls and whether or not they can be changed once data is passed in.
Also Read: No Halfway Deal In Security
Input fuzzing is one of the most basic kinds of testing you can perform on an API. It occurs when attackers send API inputs that contain random or unexpected values. This test will show you whether the API can handle random data or not. It should do so without impeding its performance, but rather enhancing it.
The API security testing tool you use should allow for several different types of fuzzing:
●Data Format Fuzzing: An input format can be modified to see how the API responds when an invalid value is received.
●Range Fuzzing: Some APIs only accept certain numeric ranges from authorized users, such as credit card numbers and phone numbers. You should check whether your API functions properly under this type of condition.
The first thing to understand about API security testing is that it is not a one-size-fits-all process.Getastra
●Boundary Fuzzing: This type of fuzzing should be used to check for boundaries within the API itself. For example, checking if a string is between certain character lengths, determining whether it's possible to pass in an empty parameter value that will still produce valid results, etc.
Testing for API input fuzzing can also include randomizing parameters that are always required by the API function being tested (e.g., session IDs). If these values don't need to exist, hackers will be able to bypass any checks made by the developers who have implemented strict guidelines regarding API usage.
Another API security test you should consider is to check for unhandled API functions. Unhandled API methods are those that developers didn't code into the API. This happens either because they were unaware of their necessity or simply forgot about them.
Allowing access to these functions creates a vulnerability point in your API's functionality. Unfortunately, attackers can use these vulnerabilities as attack vectors. API security testing should search for unhandled API methods and alert you to their presence.
This API security testing method will help you determine how well the API performs under different input conditions without any malicious actors trying to tamper with it.
A final API security test you should consider is to check for possible injection attacks. This type of vulnerability occurs when user-defined input data can be inserted into API calls as part of the API's scripting language.
Injecting attacks have been a long-time security threat for APIs. This is because they allow attackers to use any type of data that can be manipulated and inserted into an API call. They should ideally only allow what is provided by regular users or applications trying to access the API.
The API security testing process goes beyond just finding the presence of common API attack vectors like cross-site scripting (XSS), SQL injection, remote code execution, and much more. It also looks for other API features that can put your system at risk if they aren't properly secured with input validation defenses or strict API security features.
Though API security testing may seem daunting, it's a necessary step in securing your systems and data. As the saying goes, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure! If you don't have time to do this yourself, you can always seek help from security experts. The costs are justified by the benefits. So, make sure to conduct API security testing if you haven't already!
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