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WASHINGTON - China's labor laws have long stated that a workday is eight hours long and overtime must be paid to any worker putting in more than 44 hours a week.
For many of China's workers today that describes an idyllic daily grind given the common practice of companies demanding that employees follow a '996' schedule — 9 a.m. to 9 p.m., six days a week — to keep their jobs as employers have devised ways around loosely enforced laws.
Entrepreneurs such as Jack Ma, who founded the online retail giant Alibaba, and Richard Liu, chief of e-commerce platform JD.com, praised 996 as their internationally lauded enterprises made them billionaires. They have since walked back their praise, however, as the Chinese government has cracked down its wealthiest citizens.
After the deaths of two workers earlier this year at the online agricultural marketplace app Pinduoduo, long-simmering dissatisfaction in tech and other globally competitive sectors boiled over into public outcry.
Following a ruling last week by China's highest court, employers are on notice: 996 is illegal.
"The overtime issues at some industries and companies have come to the public's attention," the Supreme People's Court said in its decision. "Legally, workers have the right to corresponding compensation and rest times or holidays. Obeying the national regime for working hours is the obligation of employers. Overtime can easily lead to labor disputes, impact the worker-employer relationship and social stability."
Last week's ruling comes as the Xi administration moves to boost the birthrate, even as Chinese couples point to grueling demands of work, child and elder care, and many young Chinese, fed up with a culture of overwork, are "lying flat" to express their frustration.
China's courts and ministries will now develop guidelines to resolve future labor disputes, according to the Aug. 26 ruling, which cited numerous cases focused on required overtime — most but not all of which involved tech companies.
In one case, a courier delivery company employee identified as Zhang was required to work a 996 schedule in 2020. He refused citing China's labor laws.
The company fired him, saying he had failed to fulfill his duties.
A depiction of Chinese history, customs, and laws Image source: wikimedia commonswikimedia commons
Zhang filed a lawsuit against his former employer for wrongful termination.
The high court ruled in favor of Zhang, citing Chinese Labor Law Article 41, saying overtime is capped at 36 hours per month. "The firm's required working hours violated the Labor Law, thus it is deemed illegal," the high court said in its order to pay Zhang 8,000 RMB or about $1,230 dollars for illegal termination.
Another case involved the labor rights violation of a man identified only as "Li" who died of overwork in December 2018. That year, Li had less than three days off in August, September and November, during which he worked 319, 293 and 322.5 hours respectively. His survivors sued the company shortly after his death.
The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security recognized the death as a work injury, according to the court, which ordered the company to pay 766,911 RMB or about $119,000 dollars to Li's family in compensation, saying his "right to rest was severely violated."
In May 1995, China implemented a 40-hour, five-day workweek — standard in the U.S. and many other developed countries.
Since then, many big tech firms and private companies, driven to maximize profits, trim labor costs and compete in a global marketplace, have adopted the 996 model. In 2019, Ma famously said on China's Twitter-like social media platform Weibo that "It's a blessing to be able to do 996."
"If you are not doing 996 when you are young, when can you do it? If we are doing things we love, 996 is not a problem at all," he wrote. The post was soon deleted after vocal criticism from Chinese netizens.
Li Qiang, founder and executive director of the New York-based China Labor Watch, told VOA Mandarin that the 10 cases, all found in favor of the workers, are an important signal that the 996 practice may be coming to an end.
"China has many laws restricting overtime and forced work, but there were no legal precedents to follow," he told VOA Mandarin in a phone interview. "These 10 cases send a signal that China's existing laws could be implemented."
Li also pointed out that the move might have certain political goals, as Chinese regulators have begun cracking down on the country's tech companies in a bid to promote so-called social justice. But it's possible, he added, that companies will develop certain "countermeasures."
"We still need to wait and see if the 996 culture [will] actually disappear," he said.
Front view of the Supreme Court of the Republic of China Image source: wikimedia commonswikimedia commons
Teng Biao, a Chinese human rights lawyer who is a visiting professor at the Pozen Family Center for Human Rights at the University of Chicago, told VOA Mandarin that while the court's warning is a step in the right direction, he worries about enforcement.
"In many places in China, businessmen and government officials have overlapping interests, so the protection of labor rights is very difficult," he told VOA Mandarin by phone.
Liang Xiaojun, a lawyer at Beijing's Daoheng Law Firm, said the warning also has something to do with China's recent push for the three-child policy and its crackdown on private tutoring to reduce the costs of raising kids — all part of a bid to boost population growth.
"They aim at reducing working hours, so young people have time to fall in love, get married, and have kids," he told VOA.
Li from China Labor Watch argued that the ultimate protection of workers' rights lies in the formation of an independent union that will represent employee interests and rights.
The All-China Federation of Trade Unions, the only labor union in China, says in its charter that the union is "a mass organization of the working class led by the Chinese Communist Party."
"Without independent labor unions, workers' rights can't be properly protected," Li warned. "The Chinese Communist Party could potentially have a regulation to protect workers' rights today, and another regulation to protect the companies' interests tomorrow.
"In the end, no one is really protected."
(This article is originally written by Yang Min) (VOA/RN)
Keywords: China, Labour Laws, 996 Schedule, High Court
The trailer of the upcoming web series 'Rocket Boys' was unveiled on Thursday. The series stars Ishwak Singh as Dr Vikram Sarabhai and Jim Sarbh as Dr Homi J. Bhabha, India's space pioneers. It revolves around the lives of nuclear physicists Dr Vikram Sarabhai and Dr Homi J. Bhabha, and follows their journey as they set out to create the Indian space programme.
It takes account of several international and geopolitical factors that shaped the Indian nuclear programme and Indian space programme including the raw materials shortage after the Second World War, industrial policy of India and the Sino-Indian War of 1962.
The trailer of the upcoming web series 'Rocket Boys' was unveiled on Thursday. | Unsplash
The trailer starts off with establishing the excellence of the prominent lead scientists (Dr Vikram Sarabhai and Dr Homi J. Bhabha) and their camaraderie, progressing into the element of love before it sharply cuts the mounting tension between the scientist pair with a difference of opinion that would spiral over the next course of events in the story. The series, which also stars talents like Regina Cassandra, Rajat Kapur, Dibyendu Bhattacharya, Saba Azad, and Arjun Radhakrishnan in pivotal roles, has been directed by Abhay Pannu.
Created by Nikkhil Advani, Roy Kapur Films, and Emmay Entertainment, and produced by Siddharth Roy Kapur, Monisha Advani, Madhu Bhojwani, and Nikkhil Advani, the show will be soon available for streaming on SonyLIV from February 4. (IANS/MBI)
(Kewords: space programme, web series, Space Pioneers, India, Trailer, Rocket Boys, SonyLIV)
BY ESTHER JOHN
It has been medically proven that excess fat in the body is responsible for causing various potentially dangerous medical issues, including cardiovascular diseases like stroke, hypertension, and diabetes.
Excessive body fat is also accountable for immobility in people, especially in old age or cases where people have accumulated excessive body fat to obesity levels.
Many people, nevertheless, have been trapped in busy schedules and demanding professions, and they do not find the time to put in the proper effort towards losing body fat, dragging them down like going to the gym.
They, therefore, resort to fake and ineffective weight loss routines designed to burn down fat only to lose their money and time.
This product review highlights the new Outback Belly Burner, a new game-changing product in the market designed to give you a cheaper and more effective alternative to the expensive and ineffective weight loss products out there.
Introducing Outback Belly Burner (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
Outback Belly Burner is a breakthrough product designed to give you a new and never-used formula to naturally burn down your belly fat effectively and naturally in a pocket-friendly way.
The Outback Belly Burner was developed using a new fat-burning process, unlike other weight loss products and routines like keto, fasting, and hitting the gym.
According to the manufacturer, the Outback Belly Burner uses the concept of shutting down the methane gridlock levels in the body to aid the weight loss process.
It has been discovered that high methane levels are associated with increased body fat percentages. The manufacturer developed a formula that lowers the methane gridlock and kickstarts the weight loss process.
Outback Belly Burner is safer, more effective, and cheaper than other weight loss products.
What is Outback Belly Burner? (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
M. smithii is a bacterium that increases methane concentration in the gut. As a result, the digestive system is disrupted, leading to the absorption of more calories.
In addition, high methane levels prevent your system from utilizing stored fat and instead depend upon carbs for energy production. The combination of eight Australian-sourced ingredients in the Outback Belly Burner breaks down the M. smithii bacterium, enhances digestion, and supports weight loss.
Furthermore, the eight ingredients are science-proven to stimulate fat oxidation, therefore, increasing energy levels in your system for extended periods. Each Outback Belly Burner capsule is a product of a US-based state-of-the-art supplement company that is both FDA-approved and GMP-certified.
The formulators claim that the formula supports the loss of pounds without the need to change your dietary habits or follow restrictive workouts. Similarly, Outback Belly Burner is entirely all-natural and unlikely to cause its users’ unwanted side effects.
How Outback Belly Burner Works (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
The Outback Belly Burner has been developed using the findings of the breakthrough study conducted to uncover the real cause of excessive belly fat.
The Outback Belly Burner is designed to minimise the methane concentration levels by reversing the adverse effects of the Methanobrevibacter smithii bacteria in the intestines.
Outback Belly Burner works by breaking the methane gridlock by terminating the calorie retaining Methanobrevibacter smithii bacteria to allow for more calorie burning and lower methane levels.
Each capsule of the Outback Belly Burner contains a unique blend of ingredients that eliminate the presence of the Methanobrevibacter smithii bacteria. This allows your body to burn the absorbed calories instead of storing them in the form of fats.
Outback Belly Burner Ingredients (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
The manufacturer of Outback Belly Burner has developed a blend of natural and cost-effective ingredients extracted from various dry plants in the Australian desert to give you a natural solution to your weight loss problem. The following ingredients have been put into developing this product.
The Silybum marianum is a thorny arid plant in the Australian desert. The manufacturer uses the extract from this plant to offer you the following benefits. First of all, this plant extract is responsible for blocking the creation of new fat cells.
This effectively hinders the accumulation of fat in the belly. Secondly, the extract is an effective antibacterial ingredient that will effectively work on the methane accumulating Methanobrevibacter smithii bacteria. This works to lower the methane concentration in the body effectively. Moreover, this extract works to clear the methane gridlock in the body.
The manufacturer uses banaba leaves extract to offer you the following advantages. First of all, the banaba leaves are a natural fat-burning ingredient that breaks down the fat accumulated in the body.
Additionally, they offer a powerful antioxidant solution to get rid of harmful substances in the body. Finally, the extract is responsible for maintaining a healthy insulin level in the body. This ingredient offers you a combination of a host of benefits all in one.
Red Grape Skin Extract
This extract is derived from the skin of red grapes and offers your body a host of benefits, including eliminating harmful bacteria from the body.
In addition to this, this extract is responsible for rejuvenating ageing body cells to offer you a new refreshed youth feeling and rekindling the crucial body vitality and strength.
Furthermore, the red grape skin extract has been associated with supporting proper brain health.
The manufacturer adds the berberis extract in this weight loss formula since they are a vital ingredient with a host of benefits to your body. First of all, the extract is responsible for supporting functional digestive health.
This ensures proper absorption and utilisation of calories instead of storing them in fat in the body. Despite this, berberis is responsible for combating the harmful methane gridlock, the biggest culprit to fat gain. Berberis also contain a variety of beneficial plant compounds.
The Panax ginseng is a root medicinal plant used for centuries by the Australian people to treat various diseases.
In modern times, it has been discovered that it works towards cleaning the gut of toxic bacteria, which may include the methane accumulating Methanobrevibacter smithii bacteria. Nevertheless, this extract is responsible for boosting the body’s immune system.
Green Tea Extract
Green tea has been known to contain many benefits to the body. To begin with, it is a natural fat-burning substance in the body. Green tea also supports healthy digestion in the body and acts as a natural metabolism booster.
Cayenne Fruit Extract
This ingredient offers you the following benefits. Besides being a natural metabolism booster in the body, cayenne fruit extract speeds up digestion, hence aiding break the methane gridlock. Moreover, it is rich in vitamin B.
How Much Weight Can You Lose? (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
According to OutbackBellyBurner.com, customers have rapidly lost 50+lbs while taking Outback Belly Burner. Many customers claim to have quickly lost 30 to 50lbs without dieting or exercising after taking Outback Belly Burner.
Here are some of the weight loss stories shared on the official website:
One woman lost 50lbs by taking Outback Belly Burner. That woman had been overweight for years. She was depressed, sad, and angry at life – so she decided to make a change. She claims to have lost 50lbs already and now feels like “a whole new different person.”
One man took Outback Belly Burner to lose 30lbs. Before taking Outback Belly Burner, that man claims his body was “bigger than a basketball” and that it “didn’t feel good.” After taking Outback Belly Burner for a few months, he lost 30lbs and now loves going to the swimming pool.
Another woman took Outback Belly Burner to rapidly lose 42lbs. That woman claims you can continue “to eat as much as you want” while taking Outback Belly Burner without worrying about losing weight. She claims to personally be “eating a lot” yet is still “dropping pounds of fat every day.” In fact, that woman claims to have lost 42lbs in just “a few weeks” of taking Outback Belly Burner – all without eating less food.
As the product’s owner referenced during the official Outback Belly Burner presentation, the ingredients inside this fat burning weight loss pill are highly effective at popping the methane bubble in your gut once and for all, which helps you melt fat from your body faster than butter in a hot pan under the Arizona scorching sun.
Based on all of these results, it appears customers can rapidly lose a significant amount of weight by taking Outback Belly Burner.
Outback Belly Burner Dosage (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
Each bottle of Outback Belly Burner contains 60 capsules of the product to last you thirty days. The manufacturer recommends taking two capsules each day early in the morning before breakfast to kickstart the metabolism process in the body. Users should, nevertheless, consult with a physician before taking it or if they are under other prescriptions.
Outback Belly Burner Price (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
Each bottle contains sixty capsules retailing at $69.00 plus $9.95 shipping. The one-bottle plan is meant to last for thirty days. The manufacturer offers a ninety-day supply of three bottles at a discounted price of $59.00 per bottle and a 180-day plan of six bottles at $49.00 per bottle. Both the three and the six-bottle options have free shipping.
Customers can purchase the product on the manufacturer’s website and make online payments via PayPal, Mastercard, American Express, and Visa. Customer service can be reached by email or phone at:
Phone: +1 (720) 833-7732 (24/7)
Outback Belly Burner Refund Policy (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
Outback Belly Burner is backed by a 180 day money back guarantee. You can request a complete refund on Outback Belly Burner within 6 months (180 days) of your purchase.
If you did not lose a significant amount of weight in a short period of time while taking Outback Belly Burner, or if you’re unsatisfied with the results of Outback Belly Burner for any reason, then you can request a complete refund with no questions asked.
Final Thoughts on Outback Belly Burner (Outback Belly Burner Reviews)
There are hundreds of weight loss pills on the market. However, unless you address the root cause of excessive weight gain, the weight loss products can only offer temporary results. Poor gut health and a high methane level make it impossible to shed fat.
Outback Belly Burner claims it has the right Australian ingredients to fight excess weight. Still, it is best to maintain a healthy diet, exercise regularly, and alleviate stress to get outstanding results from Outback Belly Burner. In addition, users should know that individual results vary.
(Disclaimer: This is a sponsored article and includes some commercial links.)
Becoming an entrepreneur is simple because it does not require any qualifications. All you need is to ensure that you have the skills and dedicate yourself to work. You don't start anything when you are perfect, but through experience, you improve day by day until you become perfect. You can be an entrepreneur irrespective of where you are. Because entrepreneurship involves identifying and developing a possible solution, it makes it possible to thrive in any environment. That is because you cannot find a perfect climate and have no challenges. You can also thrive by increasing awareness of your products if you buy Spotify streams when marketing through podcasts.
There are some factors such as culture, technological development, education, and economic development that you expect to see solid entrepreneurial growth in an area. These factors may have either positive or negative effects on entrepreneurship. The positive impact will provide a conducive environment for the emergence of entrepreneurship, while adverse effects will inhibit the growth of entrepreneurship. Let us now look at how each of these factors affects entrepreneurship development.
Capital is a lubricant to the process of production. It is the essential factor for the establishment of enterprises. An increase in business projects in an area leads to an increase in profit which accelerates the process of capital formation. You cannot think of starting a business without capital. Companies require a lot of things, not just skills and experience. However small your business may be, you will need to pay bills and even hire employees. All these cannons run minus capital. That is why it is regarded as a lubricant in the production process. Where there is enough capital, there will be faster development in entrepreneurship.
Where there is enough capital, there will be faster development in entrepreneurship.Unsplash
Every business requires labor for its successful operation. Easy availability of the correct type of workers also affects entrepreneurship. The success of a business is not determined by the number of laborers but the quality of work they deliver. You may have so many people employed in your company, but they provide little work. The location of your business will also affect the job your workers will deliver. It could be because the roads are inaccessible, so they come to work late. This problem of labor immobility can be solved by providing infrastructural facilities, including efficient transportation.
The quality rather than quantity also affects the emergence of entrepreneurship in an area. Most developed countries continue to be ahead because of the quality of their labor force, which encourages entrepreneurship. The effects of labor immobility also determine the labor cost in a country. If the road network is poor, the cost of labor will be high because workers find it complicated moving from one place to the other. Other factors that also affect labor mobility include economy and security. Insecurity in an area makes it hard for people to move from their homes to workplaces for fear of being attacked, which undermines entrepreneurship development in that area.
The availability of raw materials in an area leads to increased entrepreneurship. Remember, you cannot start any business without the raw materials. After you have decided to venture into business, the first thing to think of is what you will be selling. After selecting what to sell, you find out the raw materials required to manufacture the product you want to sell.
The success of a business is not determined by the number of laborers but the quality of work they deliver. Unsplash
Raw materials are the essential ingredient required in production, especially in the manufacturing and processing industries. Remember, entrepreneurs are creative and innovative people. They also think differently in every situation that comes across. The availability of many raw materials in an area will promote entrepreneurship. That is because they will allow entrepreneurs to come up with many creative ways of making different products.
On the other hand, a shortage of raw materials in an area will adversely affect entrepreneurial development. That is because it is hard to come up with new ideas where there are no raw materials. Also, you cannot set up an industry or production firm where there are no or fewer raw materials.
The market is a significant factor for the growth of entrepreneurship. In the modern world, many people are entrepreneurs and more before still dreaming of becoming one in their future. That contributes to the competitive nature of business. Therefore, you cannot start a business without knowing the market and marketing techniques. After deciding on the product you want to sell, the next thing is to check whether there are people who will consume your products or not. If there is, you can continue with the product; if not, you can consider offering another product with the available market.
Even as we talk of the business market, it does not necessarily have to be in your geographical location. Today, the words have gone digital, and there are several ways you can look at the market of your products. As a business person, you are the one to go out of your comfort zone and look for the market. One of the easiest way to market your products is through online platforms such as YouTube. You can even go the extra mile and buy YouTube subscribers to increase the market for your products. The size and composition of the market also matter a lot as far as your business is concerned.
As much as entrepreneurship does not require any qualification, you need basic knowledge.Unsplash
Expansion of entrepreneurship requires properly developed infrastructures such as transport and communication networks. It not only helps enlarge the market but also expands the horizons of business. Properly constructed roads will facilitate the movement of people and goods from one place to the other. Smooth movement of goods and people promotes the growth of entrepreneurship.
Education enables one to understand the outside world and equips him with the basic knowledge and skills to deal with daily problems. As much as entrepreneurship does not require any qualification, you need basic knowledge. The education system has a vital role in impacting you with entrepreneurial values.
Entrepreneurship has made a lot of contributions to society. However, being successful in entrepreneurship is not easy because it requires a lot and involves many challenges. If you put everything needed ready and have the required skills, you can easily overcome the obstacles.
(Disclaimer: This is a sponsored article and includes some commercial links.)
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