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China Remains Top Defense Priority: Acting US Defense Secretary

The U.S. military has carried out multiple freedom-of-navigation operations in the South China Sea

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The two countries are deeply entrenched in a trade war as their militaries continue to vie for influence in the region. VOA

Acting Secretary of Defense Pat Shanahan said Wednesday that China remained his top defense priority, but that message could ring hollow during his current trip to Asia as Iranian threats loom over American plans to focus on great-power competitors.

Speaking to reporters en route to Jakarta, Shanahan said threats in the Middle East and North Korea would “consume time,” but the United States must not lose sight of China’s growing military power.

“Implementation of the National Defense Strategy is my top priority, [and] China is the priority within the National Defense Strategy,” he said in response to a question from VOA. He was referring to the Trump administration’s shift from a mostly counterterror approach to a policy that focuses more on competition with Russia and China.

Shanahan has embarked on what officials call a “listening trip” to the Asia-Pacific region that aims to reassure allies of the U.S. commitment to them. Shanahan is set to deliver a major speech on U.S. military posture in Asia, with a particular focus on China, during the annual Shangri-La defense forum in Singapore later this week.

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Chinese Defense Minster Wei Fenghe inspects the honor guard during a welcoming ceremony at the Ministry of Defense in Singapore, May 29, 2019. VOA

“I am not there to sell,” Shanahan said.

During the forum, the acting U.S. defense secretary is expected to meet with Chinese Defense Minister Wei Fenghe. Shanahan said he would identify areas of cooperation with Beijing and candidly point out issues where China and the U.S. disagree.

The two countries are deeply entrenched in a trade war as their militaries continue to vie for influence in the region.

The U.S. military has carried out multiple freedom-of-navigation operations in the South China Sea in recent weeks to support universal passage through international spaces controversially claimed by China. U.S. military ships also have transited through the strategic Taiwan Strait at least once a month since the start of this year.

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The U.S. supports self-ruled Taiwan, which China claims as its own.

Earlier this month, Shanahan identified Beijing’s aggressive military buildup, theft of technology and subversion of international law as major worries.

The Pentagon refers to China as a “near peer competitor,” but Bradley Bowman, a defense expert with the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, said that term was quickly becoming “outdated.”

“In many areas, China now has capabilities that are as good as ours or better,” Bowman said, “and I don’t enjoy saying this, but it’s not clear how certain conflicts might end up today, if we were to go to war with China.”

North Korea

Shanahan started his trip in the U.S. state of Hawaii, where he met with Adm. Philip Davidson, head of U.S. Indo-Pacific Command, before visiting Indonesia. After the Shangri-La defense forum, Shanahan will visit with his counterparts in South Korea and Japan.

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FILE – A missile is launched during a military drill in North Korea, in this May 10, 2019, photo supplied by the Korean Central News Agency. VOA

U.S. President Donald Trump and Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe differed Monday on whether recent North Korean missile tests violated a U.N. Security Council resolution, but they remained united on the goal of achieving a denuclearized Korean Peninsula.

At a joint news conference in Tokyo, Trump said he viewed the tests as a bid for attention by North Korean leader Kim Jong Un and that he was not personally bothered by them. Abe, however, said the tests did violate the Security Council resolution.

Shanahan condemned the tests Wednesday and told reporters both the U.S. and Japan were committed to denuclearizing the peninsula.

“Let me just be clear, these were short-range missiles. Those are a violation” of the resolution, he said.

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Michael O’Hanlon, a senior defense expert with the Brookings Institution, told VOA that while the launch was worrisome, it was not a “top-tier concern” yet.

“North Korea is signaling, I believe, that it could do more,” said O’Hanlon, “and I’m afraid we have to expect more of that, not less, given the path we’re on.”

Iran

Shanahan’s trip follows recent decisions to reinforce U.S. defenses in the Middle East to protect American forces from potential Iranian threats.

“The Iranian threat to our forces in the region remains,” Shanahan said Wednesday.

China, Defense, Priority, US, Secretary
FILE – In this May 3, 2019, photo released by the U.S. Navy, an F/A-18E Super Hornet launches from the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln. The U.S. sent the Lincoln and other military resources to the Middle East following “clear indications” that Iran and its proxy forces were preparing to possibly attack U.S. forces in the region, a defense official said on May 5, 2019. VOA

Officials have said Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and Iranian-backed proxy forces in the region posed credible threats to U.S. service members. They have blamed Iran for the sabotage of oil tankers in the region, a drone attack on a Saudi pipeline and an attack on the Green Zone in Iraq, but have not yet made public evidence to support these claims.

Shanahan said the Pentagon was being as transparent as possible while protecting its intelligence sources.

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The U.S. is sending about 900 troops to Saudi Arabia and Qatar for additional intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support, along with increased air and engineering support to harden the defenses of American facilities.

A 600-person Patriot battalion has extended its deployment in the region to defend against missile threats, another Patriot battery has been sent to assist this mission, thousands of sailors in an aircraft carrier strike group have deployed to the region ahead of schedule, and the USS Arlington transport landing dock ship has been rerouted to the area. (VOA)

Next Story

Here’s how Carbon Footprint Can be Reduced in India

Carbon footprint in India can be reduced by 20%

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Carbon global warming

BY VISHAL GULATI

The report focuses on the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the two most carbon-intensive products — passenger cars and residential buildings.

Producing and using materials more efficiently to build passenger cars and residential homes could cut carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions between 2016 and 2060 by up to 25 gigaton across the Group of Seven (G7) member states, the International Resource Panel (IRP) finds in a summary for policymakers released here on Wednesday.

This is more than double the annual emissions from all the world’s coal-fuelled power plants.

The IRP finds that emissions from the production of materials like metals, wood, minerals and plastics more than doubled over the 20-year period to 2015, accounting for almost one-quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions.

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Majority of carbon-intensive products are used in manufacturing cars. Pixabay

It warns that without boosting material efficiency, it will be almost impossible and substantially more expensive to keep global heating below 1.5 degrees Celsius — the more ambitious of the two Paris climate targets.

The IRP Summary for Policymakers, Resource Efficiency and Climate Change: Material Efficiency Strategies for a Low-Carbon Future, prepared at the request of the G7, is the first comprehensive scientific analysis estimating total cuts in greenhouse gas emissions in homes and cars that can be achieved through material efficiency.

Together, the construction and manufacturing sectors are responsible for an estimated 80 per cent of emissions generated by the first use of materials.

Using strategies and technologies that already exist, G7 countries could save up to 170 million tons of carbon emissions from residential homes in 2050.

India could save 270 million tons, and China could save 350 million tons in 2050 in this same sector.

If we look at the full lifecycle of cars, material efficiency strategies could help G7 countries, China and India reduce GHG emissions by up to 450 million tons each in 2050. These reductions can help countries stay within their carbon budget.

Extending the lifetime of products, reusing components, substituting or using less material, and making more intensive use of materials by, for example, ride-sharing, are all strategies that G7 countries could implement today to tackle global warming.

“Climate mitigation efforts have traditionally focused on enhancing energy efficiency and accelerating the transition to renewables. While this is still key, this report shows that material efficiency can also deliver big gains,” UN Environment Executive Director Inger Andersen said.

The IRP finds that the carbon footprint of the production of materials for cars could be cut by up to 70 per cent in G7 countries, and 60 per cent in China and 50 per cent in India in 2050.

The largest emission savings from passenger vehicles come from a change in how people use cars, like car-pooling and car-sharing, and a move away from large SUVs.

Greenhouse gases carbon
The construction and manufacturing sectors are responsible for an estimated 80 per cent of emissions generated by the first use of materials. Pixabay

The report also shows that greenhouse gas emissions from the production of materials for residential buildings in the G7, China and India could be reduced between 50 and 80 per cent in 2050 with greater material efficiency.

The most promising strategies include more intensive use of space e.g. reducing demand for floor space, switching out concrete and masonry for sustainably produced wood, improving recycling, and building lighter homes using less carbon-intensive steel, cement and glass.

Reducing demand for floor space in the G7 by up to 20 per cent could lower greenhouse gas emissions from the production of materials by up to 73 per cent in 2050.

Shared homes, smaller units, and downsizing when children move out lead to these big reductions.

The cuts revealed by the report are on top of emission savings generated by the decarbonisation of electricity supply, the electrification of home energy use, and the shift towards electric and hybrid vehicles.

Many of these emission reductions will only be possible if countries create enabling policy environments and incentives, the report says.

UN Secretary-General Antonio Gutteres wants countries to increase the ambition of their climate targets at the ongoing UN climate change negotiations (COP25) that entered its final stage in this Spanish capital.

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The IRP report urges policymakers to integrate material efficiency into their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to set higher emission reduction targets that will limit the damage from global warming.

Currently, only Japan, India, China, and Turkey mention resource efficiency, resources management, material efficiency, circular economy or consumption side instruments as explicit mitigation measures in their NDCs. (IANS)