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Chinese Satellite Searches for Invisible Dark Matter but also Explores Origin of Cosmic Rays

This was the first time that an experiment directly measures the cosmic ray protons up to the energy of 100 TeV with high precision

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Chinese, Satellite, Invisible
An international research team has conducted a precise measurement of the spectrum of protons, the most abundant component of cosmic rays, in an energy range from 40 GeV to 100 TeV. Pixabay

A Chinese satellite, named ‘Monkey King’, has not only searched for the invisible dark matter but also explored the origin of cosmic rays or high energy particles that travel through space at nearly the speed of light.

An international research team has conducted a precise measurement of the spectrum of protons, the most abundant component of cosmic rays, in an energy range from 40 GeV to 100 TeV (one TeV is one trillion electron volts) with China’s Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), also known as ‘Wukong’ or Monkey King, Xinhua news agency reported.

This was the first time that an experiment directly measures the cosmic ray protons up to the energy of 100 TeV with high precision, according to the research team.

The measured spectrum shows that the proton flux increases at hundreds of billions electron volts and then drops at around 14 TeV, indicating the existence of a new spectral feature of cosmic rays, said Chang Jin, the principal investigator of DAMPE and the director of the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Chinese, Satellite, Invisible
A Chinese satellite, named ‘Monkey King’, has not only searched for the invisible dark matter but also explored the origin of cosmic rays or high energy particles that travel through space. Pixabay

“The new finding is of great importance in helping scientists understand the source and acceleration of cosmic rays in the Milky Way,” said Yuan Qiang, a researcher at PMO.

“We speculate that the newly discovered spectral feature of cosmic ray protons might be produced by a nearby source which is a few thousand light-years from the earth,” Yuan said.

Another possibility is that there are different types of sources of cosmic rays in the Milky Way, which generate different spectra, Yuan added.

“We still don’t know what kind of celestial body generates those cosmic rays of and from which direction they come. Many scientists believe that the majority of galactic cosmic rays come from supernova remnants. We need more observation with various methods to answer the questions related to the origin and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays,” said Yue Chuan, another researcher at PMO.

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The result, based on DAMPE’s data collected in its first two and a half years, was published online in the latest issue of Science Advances. (IANS)

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NASA Satellite Reveals More Plants are Growing Around Everest

According to the researchers, snow falls and melts here seasonally, and they don't know what impact changing subnival vegetation will have on this aspect of the water cycle - which is vital because this region (known as 'Asia's water towers') feeds the ten largest rivers in Asia

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Mount Everest
FILE - Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world, is seen in this aerial view March 25, 2008. VOA

Researchers have found that plant life is growing and expanding around Mount Everest and across the Himalayan region as the area continues to experience the consequences of global warming.

According to the study, published in the journal Global Change Biology, the research team from University of Exeter in UK, used satellite data to measure the extent of subnival vegetation – plants growing between the treeline and snowline – in this vast area.

Little is known about these remote, hard-to-reach ecosystems, made up of short-stature plants (predominantly grasses and shrubs) and seasonal snow, but the study revealed they cover between five and 15 times the area of permanent glaciers and snow.

Using data from 1993 to 2018 from NASA’s Landsat satellites, researchers measured small but significant increases in subnival vegetation cover across four height brackets from 4,150-6,000 metres above sea level.

“These large-scale studies using decades of satellite data are computationally intensive because the file sizes are huge. We can now do this relatively easily on the cloud by using Google Earth Engine, a new and powerful tool freely available to anyone, anywhere,” said study researcher Dominic Fawcett, who coded the image processing.

The Hindu Kush Himalayan region extends across all or part of eight countries, from Afghanistan in the west to Myanmar in the east. More than 1.4 billion people depend on water from catchments emanating here.

According to the study, results varied at different heights and locations, with the strongest trend in increased vegetation cover in the bracket 5,000-5,500m.

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Around Mount Everest, the team found a significant increase in vegetation in all four height brackets. Conditions at the top of this height range have generally been considered to be close to the limit of where plants can grow.

Though the study doesn’t examine the causes of the change, the findings are consistent with modelling that shows a decline in “temperature-limited areas” (where temperatures are too low for plants to grow) across the Himalayan region due to global warming.

Other research has suggested Himalayan ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate-induced vegetation shifts.

“A lot of research has been done on ice melting in the Himalayan region, including a study that showed how the rate of ice loss doubled between 2000 and 2016,” said researcher Karen Anderson.

“It’s important to monitor and understand ice loss in major mountain systems, but subnival ecosystems cover a much larger area than permanent snow and ice and we know very little about them and how they moderate water supply,” Anderson added.

According to the researchers, snow falls and melts here seasonally, and they don’t know what impact changing subnival vegetation will have on this aspect of the water cycle – which is vital because this region (known as ‘Asia’s water towers’) feeds the ten largest rivers in Asia.

Researcher Anderson said “some really detailed fieldwork” and further validation of these findings is now required to understand how plants in this high-altitude zone interact with soil and snow. (IANS)