Wednesday September 19, 2018

Daily Cigarette Smokers Develop Greater Risk of Heart Attack, Says Study

The risk of heart attack starts to drop immediately after you stop smoking. Our results suggest the same is true when they stop using e-cigarettes

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Smoking conventional, e-cigarettes daily can be more dangerous: Study. Pixabay
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Daily usage of conventional and electronic cigarette together can increase your chances of heart attack by five times, a new study has warned.

The findings showed that the use of both cigarettes in a day — which was the most common pattern observed among e-cigarette users — appeared to be more dangerous than using either product alone.

The research team also found that the use of electronic cigarettes everyday can nearly double the odds of a heart attack.

“Most adults who use e-cigarettes continue to smoke cigarettes. While they may think they are reducing their health risks, we found that the heart attack risk of e-cigarettes adds to the risk of smoking cigarettes,” said senior author Stanton Glantz, Professor at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF).

E-cigarettes deliver aerosol of nicotine and other flavours by heating a liquid, and are promoted as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, which generate the nicotine aerosol by burning tobacco.

The study found that while e-cigarettes deliver lower level of carcinogens than conventional cigarettes, they deliver both ultrafine particles (about 1/50 the size of human hair) and other toxins that have been linked to cardiovascular and non-cancer lung disease risks.

e-cigarette
The research team also found that the use of electronic cigarettes everyday can nearly double the odds of a heart attack. Pixabay

For the study, the team involved 69,452 people. The participants were asked if they had ever used e-cigarettes and/or cigarettes, and whether they had ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that they had a heart attack.

Among the 9,352 current and former e-cigarette users, 333 (3.6 per cent) had experienced a heart attack at some point, with the highest percentage (6.1 per cent) among those who used e-cigarettes daily.

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In the study, a quarter of the 2,259 people who currently used e-cigarettes were former smokers of conventional cigarettes and about 66 per cent of current e-cigarette users were also current cigarette smokers.

However, the research also reported some good news if smokers quit.

“The risk of heart attack starts to drop immediately after you stop smoking. Our results suggest the same is true when they stop using e-cigarettes,” Glantz mentioned. (IANS)

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Anaemia Drug Can Aid in Recovery After Heart Attack

However, further studies will be needed to confirm if the same benefits are seen in humans, they noted

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Heart Disease
Concern has often focused on the toxicity or carcinogenic properties of the metals, particularly at high doses. Pixabay

Drugs currently undergoing development to treat anaemia — lack of blood — could be repurposed to help prevent people with Type-2 diabetes from developing heart failure, according to a new research.

Researchers found that after a heart attack, a protein called HIF acts to help heart cells survive.

In people with diabetes, fats accumulate within the heart muscle and stop the HIF protein from becoming active. This means that a person is more likely to suffer lasting heart muscle damage, and develop heart failure after a heart attack.

“After a heart attack, people with Type-2 diabetes are more likely to develop heart failure more quickly, but we have not fully understood the reasons why that is the case,” said lead researcher Lisa Heather, research student at the University of Oxford in the UK.

“What we have shown with this research is that the metabolism of people with Type-2 diabetes means they have higher levels of fatty acids in the heart. This prevents signals going to the heart protective protein telling it to ‘kick-in’ after a heart attack,” she added.

Representational image.
Representational image. (IANS)

In the study, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, the team treated diabetic rats with a drug known to activate the HIF protein, and were able to encourage the heart to recover after a heart attack.

However, these initial results suggest that several drugs known to activate HIF and currently undergoing phase-III clinical trials to treat people with anaemia, could potentially be given to people with diabetes, immediately after a heart attack in the future, the researchers said.

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“This research in rats has not only identified the mechanism that could explain why people with Type-2 diabetes have poorer outcomes after a heart attack, but also a practical way this might be prevented,” the researchers explained.

However, further studies will be needed to confirm if the same benefits are seen in humans, they noted. (IANS)

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