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Cinema: How the Idea Turned into Reality!

Cinema was moving from an insecure business to a well established entertainment industry

Turning of cinema into a reality
Eadweard Muybridge captures movement, the beginning of cinema. Wikimedia
“Films can heal! Not the world, of course, but our vision of it, and that’s already enough.” – Wim Wenders

New Delhi, July 19, 2017: The history of cinema dates back to the end of 1800. It was in 1827 that the first still photograph was taken, and in 1878 that Eadweard Muybridge succeeded in capturing movement after five years of continued efforts. Muybridge was asked to settle a bet as to whether horses hooves left the ground when they galloped. He showed this by setting up a bank of twelve cameras with trip-wires connected to their shutters, with each camera taking one picture when the horse tripped its wire. Muybridge developed a projector to present his finding. By 1891, Thomas A. Edison and his assistant W.K.L Dickson invented their Kinetograph camera, and after two years build a studio to produce films from it.

However, The Lumière family remained the biggest manufacturer of photographic plates in Europe. Brothers Louis and Auguste were once asked to make films which were cheaper than the ones sold by Edison. Louis and Auguste, eventually, designed a camera which served as both a recording device and a projecting device and called it the Cinématographe. The camera shot films at sixteen frames per second, against the forty-six which Edison used. Sixteen frames per second became the standard film rate for nearly 25 years.

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Until 1927, there was no sound included in the motion pictures. Motion pictures emphasized just on movement in their first phase. This era is referred to as the silent era of film. There with practically no plot or story either. One of the earliest movie “La Sortie des ouvriers de l’usine Lumière” (Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory), a documentary in its most elemental form, showed exactly what the name of the film suggests, a single shot of dozens of men and women, all of whom happen to be wearing hats, leaving a factory for the day. People in Paris were delighted by the early Lumiere presentations, drawing huge crowds.

The first few years of the motion pictures showed the cinema moving from an insecure business to an established large scale entertainment industry.

David Wark Griffith, One of the most dynamic early directors, produced literally hundreds of one-reelers in the period from 1908 to 1912. Griffith and others in the industry wanted to do something different than the regular but the owners were reluctant to change the style of limited story telling. For this reason, they moved to a rural area near Los Angeles. It was at this place, Hollywood, that Griffith and others began to work with long feature films, and eventually, Griffith happened to produce the first full-length feature film, “Birth of a Nation”.

Many countries after that started to get involved in serious film production. Russia began its film industry in 1908. In Italy, production was spread over a number of centres. In Northern Europe, Denmark was the most important film producing country. The Indian film production, as the centenary celebrations suggest, began in 1913. But as a matter of fact, from about 1910, American films share the largest market in all European countries except France.

Cinema indeed was an idea that turned into reality, in fact, a sophisticated reality. It has undergone, without a shadow of doubt, a long course of research, creation and innovation, and because of that, it stands where it is now.

– by Samiksha Goel of NewsGram. Twitter @goel_samiksha

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Can The ‘Internet’ Replace Television And Newspaper In India?

Even though digital media’s fast-paced and aggressive growth, it is unlikely that it will surpass the television anytime soon

tamil language
According to Google, the internet consisted of 5 Million Terabytes of Data way back in 2010. Pixabay

On the basis of advertisement

In India, as the pattern goes, traditional media (TV and print) are on the top in terms of advertisement. However, in the past decade, the media industry has overseen an aggressive growth of the digital media. In the span of just two years (2010-2012), the internet has overpowered the radio and OOH. Digital media does stay far behind the two giants (television and print) but has been successful in maintaining its growth rate at around 30% until 2014. The growth rate decreased between 2014-2017, but the ‘aggressive growth’ is still sustained.

In 2018, television advertising is expected to grow by 9%, radio 10% and print, cinema, and OOH at 5% each respectively. India will be a leading digital market as internet advertising will grow at 20.4% and it will account for 15.4% market share in the country by 2020. It is however estimated that television will still be the largest media comprising the market share of 39%.

digital media
A recent Samsung survey found that it isn’t reality TV or soaps that make us most likely to tune in but documentaries, with 41% claiming it is their favorite TV genre. Pixabay

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On the basis of consumption

An average Indian adult spends about two-and-a-half hours per day on traditional media (which includes television, radio, and print). On the other hand, the consumption of digital media is one hour per day on average. The reasons range from the poor infrastructure of digital media and its poor circulation or access to the rural population since they recently came into the circuit.

In 2016, the time spent on Television accounted for 56.4% of the total time spent on media consumption. Time spent on print was 7.9%, and radio accounted for 5.3%.

In 2017, adults spent an average time of 1 hour and 18 minutes daily with digital media. Adult’s average time spent per day with digital media grew by 14.4% this year, due to the newly gained access of the rural population to the internet. However, digital media still comes to the second place in contrast to television, on which 2 hours 11 minutes of daily time is spent.

In 2018, it is estimated, Television will account for 52.1% of the time and Digital for 35.9%, while print and radio will decrease to 6.9% and 5.1% respectively.

digital media
Oldest existing newspaper: “Bombay Samachar” – Gujarati daily – published from Mumbai since 1822. Pixabay

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We have witnessed a decline in the market share of print, radio and OOH. Though radio is increasing by 10% due to improved infrastructure, it still lags behind Digital Media. It is estimated that print will too, lag behind Digital media in the coming time. Hence, it will a competition between television and digital media in future.

Even though digital media’s fast-paced and aggressive growth, it is unlikely that it will surpass the television anytime soon.