Tuesday February 19, 2019

Common Chemotherapy Drug may Lead to Heart Failure: Study

The drug also caused a wasting syndrome in the heart and the spleen

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Cholesterol
Lead, mercury exposure raises cholesterol levels: Study. Pixabay

A chemotherapy drug, widely used for treatment of ovarian, bladder, lung, thyroid and stomach cancers, has the potential to cause heart toxicity that can lead to congestive heart failure, a study led by a professor of Indian origin, has found.

In the study, conducted on mice, doxorubicin induced fibrosis in the heart, increased the programmed cell death called apoptosis and impaired the pumping of the heart.

The drug also caused a wasting syndrome in the heart and the spleen.

The study, led by Ganesh Halade, Assistant Professor at the University of Alabama in the US, found that disruption of the metabolism that controls immune responses in the spleen and heart is vital for heart maintenance, repair and control of inflammation.

For the study, published in the American Journal of Physiology — Heart and Circulatory Physiology, the team used a mouse model to study the effect of doxorubicin on immunometabolism — the study of how metabolism regulates immune cell function.

A dysregulated immunometabolism impairs resolution of inflammation, and chronic, non-resolving inflammation can lead to advanced heart failure.

heart disease
Representational image. (IANS)

Halade’s team found that doxorubicin is also involved in the deleterious response to the spleen.

First, doxorubicin was shown to induce irreversible dysregulation that lowered the levels of enzymes in the left ventricle of the heart, which in turn reduced the levels of bioactive lipids mediators produced by these enzymes, mediators that usually would help resolve inflammation.

In the spleen, doxorubicin also poisoned a special group of marginal zone immune cells called CD169+ macrophages, causing the spleen to diminish in size.

It also caused an imbalance of the cell-signalling molecules called chemokines and cytokines, and this imbalance suggested suppressed defence capacity of spleen-leukocyte immune cells.

Specifically, the researchers found decreased levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the spleen, and decreased levels of the immune-cells reparative marker MRC-1, also known as CD206, in the heart.

Thus, doxorubicin appears to have a splenocardiac impact in this non-cancer model, Halade said. (IANS)

Next Story

Study Reveals Shorter Duration of Radiation Safe in Treating Prostate Cancer

This method is both safe and effective and could be a viable treatment option for men with low and intermediate-risk of prostate cancer, the study suggested.

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cancer
The study showed that this type of radiation - stereotactic body radiotherapy - is a form of external beam radiation therapy, which reduces the duration of treatment from 45 days to four to five days with no evidence of causing worse toxicity in the long run. Pixabay

Men with low or intermediate-risk prostate cancer can safely undergo higher doses of radiation over a significantly shorter period of time and still have the same, successful outcomes as from a much longer course of treatment, according to researchers including one of Indian-origin.

The study showed that this type of radiation – stereotactic body radiotherapy – is a form of external beam radiation therapy, which reduces the duration of treatment from 45 days to four to five days with no evidence of causing worse toxicity in the long run.

“Most men with low or intermediate-risk prostate cancer undergo conventional radiation, which requires them to come in daily for treatment and takes an average of nine weeks to complete,” said lead author Amar Kishan, Assistant Professor at University of California, Los Angeles, in the US.

smoking
Nearly, 53 per cent men had low-risk disease, 32 per cent had less aggressive intermediate-risk disease and 12 per cent had a more aggressive form of intermediate-risk disease. Pixabay

“With the improvements being made to modern technology, we have found that using stereotactic body radiotherapy, which has a higher dose of radiation, can safely and effectively be done in a much shorter timeframe without additional toxicity or compromising any chance of a cure,” said Kishan.

For the study, the team included 2,142 men with low or intermediate-risk prostate cancer who were treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy. They were followed for a median of 6.9 years.

Nearly, 53 per cent men had low-risk disease, 32 per cent had less aggressive intermediate-risk disease and 12 per cent had a more aggressive form of intermediate-risk disease.

cancer
These are essentially identical to rates following more conventional forms of radiation, which are about 4-5 per cent for low-risk disease and 10 per cent to 15 per cent for intermediate-risk disease. Pixabay

In addition, the recurrence rate for men with low-risk disease was 4.5 per cent, 8.6 per cent for the less aggressive intermediate-risk, and 14.9 per cent for the more aggressive intermediate-risk group, findings published in the journal JAMA Network Open showed.

Overall, the recurrence rate for intermediate-risk disease was 10.2 per cent.

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These are essentially identical to rates following more conventional forms of radiation, which are about 4-5 per cent for low-risk disease and 10 per cent to 15 per cent for intermediate-risk disease.

This method is both safe and effective and could be a viable treatment option for men with low and intermediate-risk of prostate cancer, the study suggested. (IANS)