Children who have more conflict with their mothers during early years of elementary school may be at difficulty finding a sense of purpose in life during adulthood, suggests a new research.
A sense of purpose involves having the belief that one has a stable, far-reaching aim that organises and stimulates behaviour and goals to progress towards that objective.
The study showed children who clash with their mothers may struggle to find purpose as adults.
“One of the biggest takeaway messages from these findings is the path to a purposeful life starts early, well before we start to consider different goals for life,” said Patrick Hill, Associate Professor at Washington University in St. Louis.
“The research shows that it’s the child’s perspective of conflict that has the greatest effect on later sense of purpose and what matters most in this equation is the child’s relationship with his or her mother,” Hill said.
For the study, researchers included 1,074 students (50 per cent female) and their parents, all of whom self-reported on levels of parent-child conflict in their families during grades 1-5.
The findings, published in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, showed children who reported conflicted relations early in life with fathers predicted less life satisfaction in emerging adulthood.
But the negative impact on sense of purpose was not nearly as strong as it was found to be among children who reported early conflicts with mothers.
Understanding the content of conversations, including how are parents demonstrating the value of a purposeful life, or how are they helping children to define and pursue their own purposeful paths can help us all understand how conversations matter to children in our lives, said Leah Schultz, doctoral student at the varsity. (IANS)
There is a raging debate regarding the pros and cons of a vaginal delivery versus a cesarean birth. A lot has been said about the alarming rise in the incidence of so called unindicated cesarean births in corporate hospitals. Dr Uma Vaidhyanathan, Fortis Hospital, Shalimar Bagh talks about the details of both so you’re better informed.
Being an obstetrician in clinical practice for several years now and having seen both sides, PDr. Vaidhyanathan can safely opine it varies from case-to-case and from patient-to-patient!
“There are several factors which come into play for a vaginal delivery–if there are no medical or pregnancy related complications, the baby size is adequate enough to negotiate through the maternal pelvis, and most importantly, if the mother to be is well tuned for labour pains then nothing better than a vaginal delivery. For this the mother should be well counselled throughout the pregnancy about stages of labour, and should be mentally prepared to go through it. It helps if she has a supportive partner and family to boost her morale throughout the process of labour and delivery. It is definitely more natural, recovery and the period of staying in the hospital is definitely shorter,” confirms Dr Vaidhyanathan.
She also states that, “early contact with the baby, early establishment of breastfeeding and natural squeezing out of fluid from the lungs of the baby reduces chances of distress. The return to normal life and normal physical activity, too, is undoubtedly faster for the mother. Some issues that may present themselves with vaginal birth are tears in the vagina during the passage of the baby during birth which may need stitches. Without stitches, the tearing can negatively affect urine and bowel function which happens more frequently after vaginal birth. A vaginal birth may leave the mother with some pain in the perineum – the area between the vagina and anus.”
With regards to a cesarean delivery, the doctor feels, “at times, a cesarean delivery becomes necessary if the mother has a complication such as severe hypertension, twin or triplet pregnancy or placenta related complications. The complications can be a low lying placenta, abnormal position of the baby in utero such as breech or transverse lie, severe growth restriction in the baby wherein the baby may not be able to tolerate the stresses of a vaginal birth or the baby may be too big for the maternal pelvis!”
She also confirms that a cesarean may be unplanned, “especially in cases where there is a sudden dip in the baby’s heart rate during labor or if labour is prolonged beyond acceptable international guidelines for the various stages of labor. In such cases a well-planned cesarean birth does help saving both the mother and the baby in a well-equipped set up.”
But what are the disadvantages of a cesarean? “The disadvantages of a cesarean are increased length of hospital stay, discomfort in stitch line that may last weeks or months, higher risk of blood loss and infection, increased risk of a cesarean delivery in a future pregnancy as well as increased risk of placental abnormalities. These days though, with shorter surgical times, better suture materials and good antibiotics and stringent infection control practices in hospitals and good physiotherapy and lactation support post-delivery, we see patients getting mobilized as early as 6-12 hours post cesarean and seeking early discharge within 48-72 hours,” she replies.
All in all, a lot depends on counseling, mental preparedness and how comfortable the mother to be is with both modalities of birthing. Every prospective parent should have a detailed discussion with their obstetrician regarding their pregnancy, possible complications and options for birthing and pain relief available. Both modalities have their distinct advantages and disadvantages in select cases, and a well conducted delivery in which both the mother and baby go home safely, is what every obstetrician aspires for! (IANS)